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Pseudopus apodus (PALLAS, 1775)

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Higher TaxaAnguidae (Anguinae), Diploglossa, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPseudopus apodus thracius (OBST 1978)
Pseudopus apodus apodus (PALLAS 1775) 
Common NamesE: European Glass Lizard
G: Scheltopusik, Panzerschleiche
Croatian: blavor
Russian: Желтопузик 
SynonymLacerta apoda PALLAS 1775
Lacerta apus — SHAW & NODDER 1799: plate 411
Sheltopusik didactylus LATREILLE 1802
Pseudopus serpentinus MERREM 1820 (nom. subst.)
Pseudopus durvillii CUVIER 1829 (nomen dubium fide OBST 1980)
Pseudopus Fischeri MÉNESTRIÉS 1832
Pseudopus Pallasii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 417
Pseudopus serpentinus — BERTHOLD 1840
Pseudopus Pallasii — GRAVENHORST 1851: 384
Pseudopus Pallasii — BRÜHL 1886
Ophisaurus apus — BOULENGER 1885: 280
Pseudopus Pallasii — LEYDIG 1886
Pseudopus pallasii — CAMP 1923: 365
Ophisaurus pallasii — CAMP 1923: 368
Ophisaurus apodus — MERTENS & MÜLLER 1928
Ophisaurus apodus — SMITH 1935: 395
Pseudopus apodus — KLEMBARA 1979
Ophisaurus apodus — OBST 1981
Ophisaurus apodus — KASPAREK 1990
Ophisaurus apodus — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Ophisaurus apodus — FRYNTA et al. 1997
Ophisaurus apodus — ANDERSON 1999
Anguis apodus — MACEY et al. 1999
Pseudopus apodus — ROITBERG et al. 2000
Ophisaurus apodus — PLESSAS 2002
Ophisaurus apodus — KUMLUTAS et al. 2004
Pseudopus apodus — RUTSCHKE et al. 2005
Pseudopus apodus apodus — JANDZIK et al. 2017

Pseudopus apodus thracius (OBST 1978)
Ophisaurus apodus thracius OBST 1978
Ophisaurus apodus thracius — THIEME 1985
Ophisaurus apodus thracius — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Ophisarus [sic] apodus thracius — CEVIK 1999
Pseudopus apodus thracius — SCHLÜTER 2005
Pseudopus apodus thracius — JANDZIK et al. 2017 
DistributionGreece (incl. Limnos, Rhodos, Lesbos, Corfu = Corfou, Chios, Samos), coastal Croatia, Hercegovina, Monte Negro, Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey, Lebanon,
European Soviet Union (Caucasus, Dagestan), S Russia, S Ukraine, Republic of Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, W Tajikistan, S Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Israel

thracicus: northern coastal areas of the Black Sea, Bulgaria, Greece (Lesbos etc.)

Type locality: North Caucasus; Naryn Steppe, Russia (N coast of Caspian Sea) fide ANDERSON 1999. Obst 1978:136 considered this unlikely and restricts the type locality to the Terek River region.  
TypesHolotype: unlocated fide ANDERSON 1999.
Holotype: MTD (= MTKD); Paratypes: ZISP 19642, ZFMK, MTD (= MTKD) [thracius]
Syntypes: ZISP 2403 [Pseudopus Fischeri] 
CommentSynonymy: Partly after BRYGOO 1987. KLEMBARA (1979) also transferred Ophisaurus moguntinus and Ophisaurus pannonicus to Pseudopus. Macey et al. (1999) found this species nested within other Ophisaurus species thereby the name Ophisaurus apodus is required to render the genus monophyletic.


Type Species: Pseudopus serpentinus MERREM 1820 is the type species of the genus Pseudopus MERREM 1820.

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. See Jandzik et al. 2017 for map of subspecies. These authors also identified a southern lineage that may be described as a separate subspecies.

Fossils: Multiple fossil species of the Pseudopus lineage have been described, including P. rugosus (Klembara 2014) and P. ahnikoviensis (Klembara 2012) in the early Miocene, Pseudopus laurillardi (Klembara et al. 2010) in the middle Miocene, and Pseudopus pannonicus in the late Miocene and Pliocene (Klembara et al. 2010). 
EtymologyNamed after Greek “pus, podos” = leg, pseudo = fake, and a-podus for no leg.
The German name “scheltopusik” is derived from Russian for “yellow belly” (Langner 2019). 
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