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Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti POPE, 1928

IUCN Red List - Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Pseudoxenodontinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesPseudoxenodon karlschmidti karlschmidti POPE 1935
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti popei GRESSITT 1936
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti sinii FAN 1931 
Common NamesE: Chinese Bamboo Snake
Chinese: 崇安斜鳞蛇 
SynonymPseudoxenodon karlschmidti POPE 1928: 3
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti — NGUYEN et al. 2009
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti — WALLACH et al. 2014: 609
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti — WANG et al. 2022

Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti karlschmidti POPE 1928: 3
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti karlschmidti POPE 1935
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti karlschmidti — NGUYEN et al. 2009

Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti popei GRESSITT 1936
Pseudoxenodon popei GRESSITT 1936: 119
Pseudoxenodon popei — SMITH 1943
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti popei HU et al. 1980
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti popei — NGUYEN et al. 2009

Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti sinii FAN 1931
Pseudoxenodon sinii FAN 1931
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti sinii POPE 1935
Pseudoxenodon angusticeps sikiangensis MELL 1931
Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti sinii — NGUYEN et al. 2009 
DistributionS China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan),
N Vietnam

popei: China (Hainan); type locality: Loi Mother Mountain, alt. 1450 m, central part of Hainan Island, China.

Type locality: China, Fukien, Ch'unganhsien.  
TypesHolotype: AMNH 34658
Holotype: CAS 71997 [popei]
Holoype: ZMB23536 [sikiangensis MELL 1931]
Holotype: SYS 1026 (also given as SYU, Sun Yat-Sen University [Zhongshan University], Guangzhou [Canton]), collected by K.K. Wong on 19 November 1928 [sinii] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A Pseudozenodon allied to sinensis from which it differs through a lack of yellow in the dorsal pattern, in having a narrower head, higher labial count, more ventrals in the males, fewer in the females, and fewer subcaudals in both sexes. Moreover, karlschmidti undergoes a more marked color change during ontogeny.

DESCRIPTION OF TYPE. Rostral broader than deep, just visible from above; inter nasals much shorter than prefrontals; frontal much longer than broad, barely as long as its distance from end of snout, just as long as parietals, which are much less than twice as broad in front as behind. Loreal deeper than long; preoculars 1-1; postoculars 3-3; anterior temporals 2-2; posterior, 2-3. Upper labials 8-8, fourth and fifth entering orbit; lower labials 9-10; four in contact with anterior chin-shields on one side, 5 on other. Scales reduced from maximum of 19 to minimum of 15 at mid body, consequently, count of 17 extends along a distance equal to width of only some 6 ventrals. Ventrals 154; anal divided; subcaudals 56; total length 796 mm., 0.18 taken up by tail. (Pope 1928)

Coloration: The ground color of the dorsum is blackish gray. Down the middle of the back are 24 light gray spots. From side to side each spot covers the width of 4 to 6 scales, but longitudinally only the length of one. Some of these spots lie obliquely and all are surrounded by scales part black and part gray. Anteriorly on either side is a very indistinct row of darkish spots made up of black-bordered scales. These darkish spots for the most part alternate with the middorsal spots. The majority of the dorsal scales have minute traces of black. The light, middorsal row of spots extends on to the tail where there are 5 distinct and 2 indistinct ones. There the black borders are very indistinct. Beginning about 20 plates from the chin-shields, the ventrals are speckled with black more and more profusely toward the tail under which the speckling is so profuse that the subcaudals appear black. Laterally the speckles are concentrated along the tips of the ventrals to form a line, while in general they are gathered along the bases of the scales. The tips of even the first 20 plates are black. The ventral surface of the head is immaculate. The temporal region is darker than the dorsal surface of the head but there is no distinct postocular band. All but the last 2 upper labials on either side are narrowly bordered with black behind. (Pope 1928) 
CommentPseudoxenodon karlschmidti sinii FAN 1931 (issued: May 1931) has precedence over Pseudoxenodon angusticeps sikiangensis (issued 31 July 1931), according to Zhao & Adler 1993. 
EtymologyNamed after Karl Patterson Schmidt (1890-1957), American herpetologist who worked at the American Museum of Natural History in New York and later at the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Fan, TSANG-HOW. 1931. Preliminary report of reptiles from Yashan, Kwangsi, China. Bull. Dept. Biol. Coll. Sci. Sun Yatsen Univ., Canton, 11 (4): 1-154 - get paper here
  • Gressitt,J.L. 1936. New reptiles from Formosa and Hainan. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 49: 117-121 - get paper here
  • Mell,R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Sci. Jour., Canton, 8 [1929]: 199-219.
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Pope, CLIFFORD H. 1928. Seven new reptiles from Fukien Province, China. American Museum Novitates 320: 1-6. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, C. G. M. Z. X., Jia, S. Y. K. T. L., & Hu, C. Z. J. 2022. An updated species checklist of amphibians and reptiles in Fujian Province, China. Biodiversity Science, 22090 - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
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