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Ptychozoon cicakterbang GRISMER, WOOD, GRISMER, QUAH, THY, PHIMMACHAK, SIVONGXAY, SEATEUN, STUART, SILER, MULCAHY, ANAMZA & BROWN, 2019

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesMalaysia Parachute Gecko 
SynonymPtychozoon cicakterbang GRISMER, WOOD, GRISMER, QUAH, THY, PHIMMACHAK, SIVONGXAY, SEATEUN, STUART, SILER, MULCAHY, ANAMZA & BROWN 2019: 164
Ptychozoon homalocephalum — CANTOR 1847:626 (in part)
Ptychozoon homalocephalum — BOULENGER 1912:52 (in part)
Ptychozoon kuhli — SMITH 1935: 119 (in part)
Ptychozoon lionotum — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997:247 (in part)
Ptychozoon lionotum — COX et al. 1998:81 (in part)
Ptychozoon lionotum — DAS et al. 1998:131 (in part)
Ptychozoon lionotum — Chan-ard et al., 1999:132 (in part)
Ptychozoon lionotum — KLUGE 2001: 25 (in part)
Ptychozoon lionotum — LEONG et al. 2003: 170
Ptychozoon lionotum — GRISMER, 2011a: 532
Ptychozoon lionotum — GRISMER 2011b: 139
Ptychozoon lionotum — GRISMER et al., 2011: 78 (in part)
Ptychozoon lionotum — GRISMER et al. 2018a: 203 (in part)
Ptychozoon lionatum (sic.) — GRISMER et al. 2006: 161
Ptychozoon lionatum (sic.) — GRISMER & PAN 2008: 278 
DistributionPeninsular Malaysia (and east and west coast islands), probably S Thailand, Indonesia (Natuna Besar Island) (Leong et al. 2003).

Type locality: road to the top of Gunung Jerai, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia (5.8099°N, 100.4367°E, 744 m above sea level).  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. LSUHC 10648 adult female collected by Evan S. H. Quah, L. Lee Grismer, Anuar Shahrul, and Jesse L. Grismer on 26 June 2012. Paratypes. LSUHC 5597 adult male collected by Jesse L. Grismer, L. Lee Grismer, and Perry L. Wood Jr. on 23 July 2003 from Pulau Sibui, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia (2.217539°N, 104.069966°E, 16 m above sea level). LSUHC 5783 bears the same data as LUSHC 5597 except it was collected on 1 September 2003. LSUHC 8709 adult male collected by L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Wood Jr., and Jesse L. Grismer from Pulau Perhentian Besar, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia (5.901514°N, 102.746672°E, 123 m above sea level). LSUHC 9059 adult female bearing the same collection data as LSUHC 8709 except being collected on 18 October 2007. LSUHC 9447 adult female collected by Perry L. Wood Jr., Jesse L. Grismer, and L. Lee Grismer from Gunung Machinchang, Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia (6.386111°N, 99.661111°E, 634 m above sea level). LSUHC 10978 adult female collected by Evan S. H. Quah and L. Lee Grismer on 7 September 2013 from Hutan Lipur Lata Belatan, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia (5.579567°N, 102.589028°E, 527 m above sea level). LSUHC 11058 adult female collected by L. Lee Grismer and Shahrul Anuar on 26 June 2013 from Kem Baha, Gunung Stone, Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia (5.340092°N, 101.966917°E, 511 m above sea level). LSUHC 11418 adult male collected by Evan S. H. Quah and L. Lee Grismer on 26 June 2013 from Pulau Bidong, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia (5.620990°N, 103.058062°E, 25 m above sea level). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Ptychozoon cicakterbang sp. nov. differs from all other species of Ptychozoon by having the following unique combination of characters: a maximum SVL of 93.4 mm; supranasals not in contact; 9–13 supralabials; 11–15 infralabials; infra-auricular cutaneous flap present; prominent supra-auricular lobe; no dorsal or caudal tubercles; imbricate parachute support scales on dorsal surface of patagia; raised, prominent ridges on ventral surface of patagia; 79–105 midbody dorsal scales; 30–48 ventral scales; pre-antebrachial flap not inserting on the full length of digit V but leaving a space between them; no enlarged femoral scales; 17–25 pore-bearing precloacal scales in males; 18–28 enlarged precloacal scales; 5–8 rows of enlarged post-precloacal scales; 14–17 transverse subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 25–34 scales across the widest portion of the caudal flap; enlarged dorsal caudal scales forming intermittent whorls; distal caudal lobes fusing to form a narrow caudal flap; edges of caudal flap weakly crenulated; caudal lobes angled posteriorly; caudal lobes decrease posteriorly in size; no thick, dark, postorbital stripe; four dark body bands between limb insertions; no irregularly shaped, white, vertebral markings; and subcaudal region banded in adults (Tables 4, 5 in Grismer et al. 2019).

Comparisons. Ptychozoon cicakterbang sp. nov. differs from all other species of Ptychozoon in having a prominent supra-auricular lobe as opposed to a small ridge or no enlargement at all. It differs further from P. intermedium Taylor, 1915, P. kuhli (Stejneger, 1902), and P. trinotaterra in lacking as opposed to having caudal tubercles. From P. intermedium, P. rhacophorus (Boulenger, 1899), P. trinotaterra, and P. kaengkrachanense it differs in having four body bands as opposed to 0–3. Ptychozoon cicakterbang sp. nov. differs from P. bannaense Wang, Wang, & Liu, 2016, P. horsfieldii, P. intermedium, P. kuhli, P. nicobarense, P. rhacophorus, P. trinotaterra, and P. kaengkrachanense in having an emargination between the pre-antebrachial flap and digit I as opposed to no emargination. From P. popaense it differs by having a maximum SVL of 93.4 mm versus 86.2 mm, 14–17 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe versus 13 or 14, the absence versus the presence of a thick, dark postorbital stripe; and the absence versus the presence of large, irregularly shaped, white, vertebral markings. Ptychozoon cicakterbang sp. nov. differs futher from P. lionotum, P. kabkaebin sp. nov., and P. tokehos sp. nov. by having a significantly higher mean number of infralabials and a prominent supra-auricular lobe versus a slightly raised ridge. From C. tokehos sp. nov. it differs further by having a significantly higher mean number of subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe, a higher mean number of ventral scales, and a significantly longer axilla-groin length. From P. lionotum it differs even further by having, as opposed to lacking, prominent ridges on the ventral surface of the patagia and weakly crenulated as opposed to smooth caudal flap edges. From C. kabkaebin sp. nov. and P. lionotum it differs further by having a significantly higher mean number of supralabial scales and midbody scales and caudal whorls composed of enlarged scales. From C. kabkaebin sp. nov. it differs further by lacking, as opposed to having, a thick, dark, postorbital stripe. From C. lionotum it differs further by having a significantly narrower head. Ptychozoon cicakterbang sp. nov. is well-separated from other species previously recognized as P. lionotum in the PCA and DAPC and occupies a significantly different position along PC1 from that of P. kabkaebin sp. nov. and P. tokehos sp. nov. and along PC2, it occupies a significantly different positon from that of P. lionotum. From these three species, it is further separated by an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 4.1–14.4%. Combinations of other characters differentiating P. cicakterbang sp. nov. from other more distantly related species are presented in Tables 4, 5; Figs. 3, 5, 6 in Grismer et al. 2019. 
CommentHabitat: trees of varying sizes in primary and old secondary, lowland dipterocarp forests up to approximately 800 meters in elevation (Dring 1979; Grismer 2011a,b; Grismer et al. 2011). On Pulau Sibu, it occurs at sea level on small trees within coastal forest adjacent to mangrove swamps (Grismer 2011a) and can often be found sleeping on the smaller branches of small trees and large shrubs during the day and night less than two meters above the ground (Grismer 2011a; Grismer et al. 2011). On Pulau Lang Tengah, Terengganu, specimens were observed on the ground eating winged termites on a rainy evening during a storm (Evan S. H. Quah; pers. obs.).

Behavior: When alarmed, it may jump to the ground to escape. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet cicakterbang is derived from the Malay word for flying lizards. The word “cicak” means lizard and “terbang” means flight. The term is used for both Ptychozoon and Draco. 
References
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD JR., JESSE L. GRISMER, EVAN S. H. QUAH, NEANG THY, SOMPHOUTHONE PHIMMACHAK, NIANE SIVONGXAY, SENGVILAY SEATEUN, BRYAN L. STUART, CAMERON B. SILER, DANIEL G. MULCAHY, TASHITSO ANAMZA & RAFE M. BROWN 2019. Geographic structure of genetic variation in the Parachute Gecko Ptychozoon lionotum Annandale, 1905 across Indochina and Sundaland with descriptions of three new species. Zootaxa 4638 (2): 151–198 - get paper here
 
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