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Ptychozoon kuhli (STEJNEGER, 1902)

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Sauria (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Kuhl's Flying Gecko, Gliding gecko, Kuhl’s Parachute Gecko
G: Kuhls Faltengecko 
SynonymLacerta homalocephala CREVELDT 1809 (pre-occupied)
Lacerta homalocephala — CUVIER 1831: 145
Platydactylus homalocephalus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 339
Ptychozoon kuhli STEJNEGER 1902 (nom. nov.)
Ptychozoon homalocephalum — GÜNTHER 1864
Ptychozoon homalocephalum — BOULENGER 1885: 190
Ptychozoon homalocephalum — DE ROOIJ 1915: 59
Ptychozoon kuhli — TAYLOR 1963: 810
Ptychozoon kuhli — KLUGE 1993
Ptychozoon kuhlii — COX et al. 1998: 81
Ptychozoon kuhli — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 131
Ptychozoon kulhli [sic] — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 181 
DistributionS Thailand (Nakhon Si Thammarat, Satun, Pattani), Myanmar (= Burma), India, Malaysian Peninsula (incl. Pulau Tioman, Johor: Pulau Besar), Nicobar Islands, Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo: Sabah, Sarawak; Simalur), Singapore

Type locality: not specified in original description (fide WERMUTH 1965, DAS & VIJAYAKUMAR 2009). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Types 
CommentSee WERMUTH (1965: 154) and KLAVER (2007) for a discussion of the origin of the generic name Ptychozoon. Lacerta homalocephala CREVELDT 1809 is preoccupied by Lacerta homalocephala SUCHOW (or SUCKOW) 1798.

Type species: Lacerta homalocephala CREVELDT 1809 is the type species of the genus Ptychozoon KUHL & VAN HASSELT 1822.

Diagnosis (genus): Members of the genus are diagnosable from other Asian gekkonid genera (except Luperosaurus), in showing the following characters: medium-sized to large (SVL to 107.8 mm); cutaneous folds on limbs and on sides of body; digits dilated and strongly webbed, with undivided transverse lamellae; terminal phalanges united with dilated portion to its distal end and extending beyond; inner digit clawless; dorsal scales small, typically intermixed with large tubercles; pupil vertical and males with preanal and femoral pores (Brown et al. 1997).

P. kuhli is highly variable and may consist of between five and nine unrecognized, distinct species (BROWN et al. 2013). 
References
  • Auliya, M. 2006. Taxonomy, Life History, and conservation of giant reptiles in west Kalimantan. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 432 pp. - get paper here
  • Boistel, Renaud;, Anthony Herrel; Renaud Lebrun, Gheylen Daghfous, Paul Tafforeau, Jonathan B. Losos 2011. Shake Rattle and Roll: The Bony Labyrinth and Aerial Descent in Squamates. Integrative and Comparative Biology, doi:10.1093/icb/icr034
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M. 1999. New species of parachute gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: genus Ptychozoon) from northeastern Thailand and central Vietnam. Copeia 1999 (4): 990-1001 - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M., John W. Ferner and Arvin C. Diesmos. 1997. Definition of the Philippine Parachute Gecko, Ptychozoon intermedium Taylor 1915 (Reptilia: Squamata: gekkonidae): Redescription, designation of a neotype, and comparisons with related species. Herpetologica 53 (3): 357-373. - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M.; Cameron D. Siler, L. Lee Grismer, Indraneil Das, Jimmy A. McGuire 2013. Phylogeny and cryptic diversification in Southeast Asian flying geckos. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 66 (2):351-361 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Creveldt 1809. Beschreibung einer neuen Eidechse aus der Gattung der Geckonen. Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin, Magazin für die Neuesten Entdeckungen in der Gesammten Naturkunde, Berlin 3: 266-274
  • Cuvier, G. 1831. The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by the Baron Cuvier, ... with additional descriptions of all the species hitherto named, and of many not before noticed, by Edward Griffith... and others. Vol. 9. Whittaker, Treacher and Co., London, 481 pp. - get paper here
  • Das , I. 2004. Lizards of Borneo. Natural History Publications, Kota Kinabalu, Borneo
  • Das, I. & Vijayakumar, S.P. 2009. New species of Ptychozoon (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from the Nicobar Archipelago, Indian Ocean. Zootaxa 2095: 8–20 - get paper here
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp.
  • Duméril, A.M. C. and G. Bibron. 1836. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.3. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 528 pp. - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155]
  • Grismer, L.L., McGuire, J.A.; Sosa, R. & Kaiser, H. 2002. Revised checklist and comments on the terrestrial herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. Herpetological Review 33 (1): 26-29 - get paper here
  • Grossmann, W. 2009. Faltengeckos Ptychozoon kuhli & Ptychozoon lionotum. Natur und Tier Verlag, Münster, 64 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H.-J. 1986. Schweben und Gleiten bei Amphibien und Reptilien Sauria 8 (1): 13-17 - get paper here
  • Klaver,Ch. 2007. On the status and date of publication of the generic name Ptychozoon (Reptilia, Gekkonidae). Bibliotheca Herpetologica 7 (1): 7-11 - get paper here
  • Kopstein, F. 1938. Ein Beitrag zur Eierkunde und zur Fortpflanzung der Malaiischen Reptilien. Bull. Raffl. Mus. No 14: 81-167
  • Lönnberg, E. 1899. On a small collection of Javanese reptiles containing a new species of snake. Zool. Anz. 22: 108-111 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. 1982. Die Gattung Ptychozoon, Teil 1 - Mit einem Bestimmungsschlüssel für die fünf Arten Sauria 4 (2): 11-17 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. 1982. Die Gattung Ptychozoon, Teil 2 - Mit einem Bestimmungsschlüssel für die fünf Arten Sauria 4 (3): 5-12 - get paper here
  • Mertens, Robert; Senfft, Walter 1929. Aus dem Leben des Faltengeckos (Ptychozoon kuhli Stejneger). Natur und Museum 59 (4): 218-224
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Rafe M. Brown, Cameron D. Siler, Indraneil Das, Yong Min 2012. Testing the phylogenetic affinities of Southeast Asia’s rarest geckos: Flap-legged geckos (Luperosaurus), Flying geckos (Ptychozoon) and their relationship to the pan-Asian genus Gekko. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 63: 915-921 - get paper here
  • Stejneger,L. 1902. Ptychozoon kuhli, a new name for P. homalocephalum. Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington 15: 37 - get paper here
  • SUMONTHA, MONTRI; OLIVIER S.G. PAUWELS, KIRATI KUNYA, CHAIWAT LIMLIKHITAKSORN, SIRICHAI RUKSUE, APIR 2012. A new species of Parachute Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: genus Ptychozoon) from Kaeng Krachan National Park, western Thailand. Zootaxa 3513: 68–78 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1963. The lizards of Thailand. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 44: 687-1077. - get paper here
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  • Wood, Perry L.; Hinrich Kaiser; Stephany<br />Looper; Timothy M. Youmans; Jesse L.<br />Grismer and 2004. A first report on the herpetofauna of Pulau Besar, Johor, West Malaysia. Hamadryad 28 (1&2): 106-109 - get paper here
 
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