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Python bivittatus KUHL, 1820

IUCN Red List - Python bivittatus - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaPythonidae, Henophidia, Pythonoidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesPython bivittatus progschai JACOBS, AULYIA & BÖHME 2009
Python bivittatus bivittatus KUHL 1820 
Common NamesE: Burmese Python
G: Dunkler Tigerpython 
SynonymPython bivittatus KUHL 1820: 94
Python molurus bivittatus — MERTENS 1921
Python molurus bivittatus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 429
Python molurus bivittatus — COX et al. 1998: 15
Python molurus bivittatus — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 214
Python molurus bivittatus — ZHAO 2006
Python bivittatus — JACOBS et al. 2009
Python bivittatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 618

Python bivittatus progschai JACOBS, AULYIA & BÖHME 2009
Python bivittatus progschai – KOCH 2011
Python bivittatus progschai — KOCH 2012 
DistributionSE Nepal, India (Arunachal Pradesh (Miao - Changlang district, Itanagar – Papum Pare district) [A. Captain, pers. Comm.], Uttar Pradesh), S Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, S China (S Yunnan east to Fujian, incl. Hainan and Hong Kong; Sichuan, Guangxi, Guangdong), Indonesia (Java, Bali, Sulawesi).

Introduced to Florida (USA)

progschai: Sulawesi; Type locality: SW Sulawesi. Diagnosis: see Jacobs et al. 2009.

Type locality: Java (designated by MERTENS 1930)  
ReproductionGROOT et al. (2003) and KUHN & SCHMIDT (2003) presented evidence that this species may be parthenogenetic. 
TypesHolotype: iconotype: Plate in SEBA 1735 and KUHL 1820.
Holotype: ZFMK 87481 [progschai] 
Diagnosis 
CommentSubspecies: This species has been considered as a subspecies of P. molurus. See P. molurus and references therein for more information.

Hybridization: "The evidence for the recognition of P. bivittatus to date is based on the presence or absence of a subocular scale, yet the two forms interbreed readily in captivity. In at least one case, the interbreeding of P. bivittatus with P. sebae results in no subocular at all, even though both of the progenitors possess one." [from G. Rodda, pers. comm. 22 Feb 2010].

Distribution: Records from Sumatra and Borneo are believed to be incorrectly identified (Haile 1958, Groombridge and Luxmoore 1991). See map in Barker & Barker 2008.

DNA barcodes suggested multiple species within this species (Laopichienpong et al. 2016). 
Etymology 
References
  • Barker, D.G & Barker, T.M. 2008. The Distribution of the Burmese Python, Python molurus bivittatus. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 43(3): 33-38 - get paper here
  • Barker, David G. and Tracy M. Barker 2010. The Distribution of the Burmese Python, Python bivittatus, in China. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 45(5):86-88 - get paper here
  • Bartoszek, I A; Andreasis, P T; Prokopervin, C; Curry, G & Reed, R N 2018. Python bivittatus (Burmese Python) and Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise) Habitat use, breeding aggregation, and interspecific interaction Herpetological Review 49 (2): 353-354 - get paper here
  • Bartoszek, I A; Hendricks, M B; Easterling, I C & Andreadis, P T 2018. Python bivittatus (Burmese Python) Dispersal/Marine incursion Herpetological Review 49 (3): 554-555 - get paper here
  • Bartoszek, I.A., Andreadis, P.T., Prokopervin, C., Patel, M. & Reed, R.N. 2018. Python bivittatus (Burmese Python) Diet and prey size. Herpetological Review 49 (1): 139-140.
  • Bhattarai, Santosh; Chiranjibi P. Pokheral, Baburam Lamichhane,, and Naresh Subedi 2017. Herpetofauna of a Ramsar Site: Beeshazar and Associated Lakes, Chitwan National Park, Nepal. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 24 (1): 17-29 - get paper here
  • Bhattarai, Santosh;Chiranjibi Prasad Pokheral, Babu Ram Lamichhane 2017. Death Feigning Behavior in the Burmese Python Python bivittatus Kuhl, 1820 in Chitwan National Park, Nepal Russ. J. Herpetol. 24 (4): 323-326 - get paper here
  • Booth, Warren; Gordon W. Schuett, Annice Ridgway, Devin W. Buxton, Todd A. Castoe, Giuseppe Bastone, Charles Bennett and William McMahan 2014. New insights on facultative parthenogenesis in pythons. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society - get paper here
  • Branch, W. R.; Erasmus, H. 1984. Captive Breeding of Pythons in South Africa, including Details of an Interspecific Hybrid, Python sebae natalensis X Python molurus bivittatus. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (30): 1-10 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Das, Abhijit; Uttam Saikia, B. H. C. K. Murthy, Santanu Dey and Sushil K. Dutta 2009. A herpetofaunal inventory of Barail Wildlife Sanctuary and adjacent regions, Assam, north-eastern India. Hamadryad 34 (1): 117 – 134
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Deuve, J. 1961. Liste annotee des Serpents du Laos. Bull. Soc. Sci. Nat. Laos 1:5-32.
  • Dorcas, M.E. & Willson, J.D. 2011. Invasive Pythons in the United States. Herpdigest, 176 pp.
  • Gamble, Tony; Todd A. Castoe, Stuart V. Nielsen, Jaison L. Banks, Daren C. Card, Drew R. Schield, Gordon W. Schuett, Warren Booth 2017. The Discovery of XY Sex Chromosomes in a Boa and Python Current Biology - get paper here
  • Geissler, Peter, Truong Quang Nguyen, Nikolay A. Poyarkov & Wolfgang Böhme 2011. New records of snakes from Cat Tien National Park, Dong Nai and Lam Dong provinces, southern Vietnam. Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (1): 9-16 - get paper here
  • Haile, N.S. 1958. The snakes of Borneo, with a key to the species. Sarawak Mus., Kuching, J. 8: 743-771.
  • Hilger, Axel & Axel Kwet 2015. Die Schlangenpest Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (5): 78-81 - get paper here
  • Jacobs, H.J.; Auliya, M. & Böhme, W. 2009. On the Taxonomy of the Burmese Python, Python molurus bivittatus KUHL, 1820, specifically on the Sulawesi Population [in German]. Sauria 31 (3): 5-16 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Koch, A. 2011. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Sulawesi: Underestimated Diversity in a Dynamic Environment. In: F.E. Zachos and J.C. Habel (eds.), Biodiversity Hotspots. Springer, Berlin, p. 383-404
  • Koch, A. 2012. Discovery, Diversity, and Distribution of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Sulawesi and its offshore islands. Edition Chimaira, 374 pp. [ISBN 978-3-89973-432-4] - get paper here
  • KONELL, ALINE LUIZA; BARBARA CRISTINA SANSON, AMÁLIA TURNER GIANNICO, JULIANA WERNER, FABIANO MONTIANI-FERREIRA,TILDE RODRIGUES FROES & ROGÉRIO RIBAS LANGE 2015. Cardiac thrombus in a Burmese python (Python molurus bivitattus) Herpetological Bulletin (131) - get paper here
  • Kuhl,H. 1820. Beiträge zur Zoologie und vergleichenden Anatomie. Hermannsche Buchhandlung, Frankfurt, 152 pp. - get paper here
  • Laopichienpong, Nararat et al. 2016. Assessment of snake DNA barcodes based on mitochondrial COI and Cytb genes revealed multiple putative cryptic species in Thailand Gene - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Mazzotti, Frank J.; Michael S. Cherkiss, Kristen M. Hart, Ray W. Snow, Michael R. Rochford, Michael E. Dorcas and Robert N. Reed 2011. COLD-INDUCED MORTALITY OF INVASIVE BURMESE PYTHONS IN SOUTH FLORIDA. Biological Invasions 13: 143-151
  • Mertens,R. 1921. Bl. Aqu.- u. Terr.-Kunde, Magdeburg, 32: 277
  • Meshaka Jr., Walter E. 2011. A RUNAWAY TRAIN IN THE MAKING: THE EXOTIC AMPHIBIANS, REPTILES, TURTLES, AND CROCODILIANS OF FLORIDA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 6 (Monograph 1): 1-101 - get paper here
  • Metzger, Cheryl J. 2013. Python molurus bivittatus (Burmese python) habitat use / occurrence within Gopherus polyphemus burrows. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 333-334
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Philippen, Hans-Dieter P 2014. Vielfalt ist Trumpf. Draco 16 (57): 6-15 - get paper here
  • Purkayastha, J. 2018. Urban biodiversity: an insight into the terrestrial vertebrate diversity of Guwahati, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 10(10): 12299–12316; - get paper here
  • Rahman, Shahriar Caesar. 2013. Python molurus bivittatus (Burmese python) reproduction / nesting. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 334
  • Rashid, Shaikh Rahim & Jamal Ahmad Khan 2018. Burmese Python: New sighting record of Python bivittatus in Sumera Block, Jawan, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India ZOO'S PRINT 33 (3):  19-22 - get paper here
  • Schleip, Wulf D & O’Shea, M. 2010. Annotated checklist of the recent and extinct pythons (Serpentes, Pythonidae), with notes on nomenclature, taxonomy, and distribution. ZooKeys 66 (2010) : 29-79 - get paper here
  • Soud, Rakesh 2010. Notes on a rescue of a Burmese Python Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, 1820 (Family: Pythonidae) from an urban area of Bongaigaon District, Assam. Reptile Rap (9): 11 - get paper here
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  • Yadav, Sanjeev Kumar; Afifullah Khan & Mohd Shahnawaz Khan 2017. Burmese Python: Python bivittatus: An addition to the reptiles of Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India. Zoo’s Print 32 (8): 25-29 - get paper here
  • Zeddelmann, Moritz von 2013. Der dunkle Tigerpython, Python bivittatus bivittatus. Natur und Tier Verlag, 64 pp.
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