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Regina grahamii BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853

IUCN Red List - Regina grahamii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Graham's Crayfish Snake 
SynonymRegina grahamii BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 47
Tropidonotus grahami — BOULENGER 1893: 240
Regina grahami — RUTHVEN & THOMPSON 1913
Natrix grahamii — BURT 1935
Natrix grahami — CLAY 1938
Nerodia grahami — CONANT 1978
Regina grahamii — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 158
Regina grahamii — CROTHER 2000
Regina grahamii — ERNST & ERNST 2003: 288
Regina grahami — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013
Regina grahamii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 630
Regina grahami — LEMOS-ESPINAL 2015 
DistributionUSA (Texas, W Mississippi, Louisiana, Oklahoma, SE/E Kansas, SE Nebraska, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Illinois, W Alabama)

Type locality: Rio Salado, Texas.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 
CommentPhylogeny: R. grahami and R. septemvittata appear paraphyletic in the tree shown in Burbrink et al. 2012.

Diet: recently molted crayfish 
EtymologyNamed after James Duncan Graham (1799-1865), American engineer, astronomer and collector of biological specimens. 
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Burbrink FT, Futterman I. 2019. Female‐ biased gape and body-size dimorphism in the New World watersnakes (tribe: Thamnophiini) oppose predictions from Rensch's rule. Ecol Evol. 00:1–10
  • Burbrink, Frank T.; Xin Chen, Edward A. Myers, Matthew C. Brandley and R. Alexander Pyron 2012. Evidence for determinism in species diversification and contingency in phenotypic evolution during adaptive radiation. Proc. R. Soc. B 279: 4817-4826 - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Clay, William M. 1938. A synopsis of the North American Water Snakes of the genus Natrix. Copeia 1938 (4): 173-182 - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2009. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2010. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 3rd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dundee, H.A., & Rossman, D.A. 1989. The amphibians and reptiles of Louisiana. Louisiana St. Univ. Press, Baton Rouge 300 pp.
  • Dwyer, C.M. & H. Kaiser 1997. Relationship between Skull Form and Prey Selection in the Thamnophiine Snake Genera Nerodia and Regina Journal of Herpetology 31 (4): 463-475. - get paper here
  • Edmond, Brian S. 1993. Regina grahamii (Graham's Crayfish Snake). USA: Missouri. Herpetological Review 24 (2): 68 - get paper here
  • Ernst, C.H. & Ernst, E.M. 2003. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Inst. Press, Washington, 668 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Force, Edith R. 1928. A Preliminary Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Tulsa County. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 8: - get paper here
  • Gibbons, J. W. & Mike Dorcas 2004. North American Water Snakes. University of Oklahoma Press, 496 pp.
  • Grant, Chapman 1937. Herpetological notes from Central Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 18 (3): 370-372 - get paper here
  • Hibbitts, Toby J. and Connor S. Adams. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Regina grahamii (Graham's crayfish snake). Herpetological Review 46 (2): 221 - get paper here
  • Irwin, Kelly J. 2004. Arkansas Snake Guide. Arkansas Game & Fish Commission, Little Rock, 50 pp.
  • Lawson, R. 1987. Molecular studies of Thamnophiine snakes: 1. The phylogeny of the genus Nerodia. Journal of Herpetology 21 (2): 140-157 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. (ed.) 2015. Amphibians and Reptiles of the US - Mexico Border States / Anfibios y Reptiles de los Estados de la Frontera México - Estados Unidos. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, Texas. x + 614 pp.; ISBN 978-1-62349-306-6. - get paper here
  • Liner, E. A. 1982. Regina grahami. Coloration. Herpetological Review 13 (2): 48 - get paper here
  • Lynch, J.D. 1985. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Nebraska Acad. of Sci., Lincoln, Trans. 13: 33-57.
  • McVay, John David; Bryan Carstens 2013. Testing monophyly without well-supported gene trees: Evidence from multi-locus nuclear data conflicts with existing taxonomy in the snake tribe Thamnophiini. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 68, Issue 3, September 2013, Pages 425–431 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R. Alexander; Frank T. Burbrink 2013. Early origin of viviparity and multiple reversions to oviparity in squamate reptiles. Ecology Letters 17 (1): 13–21 (published online 2013, in print 2014), DOI: 10.1111/ele.12168 - get paper here
  • Ruthven, Alexander G.;Thompson, Crystal 1913. The variations in the number of vertebrae and ventral scutes in two snakes of the genus Regina. American Naturalist 47: 625-632 - get paper here
  • Seigel, R.A. 1992. Ecology of a Specialized Predator: Regina grahami in Missouri Journal of Herpetology 26 (1): 32-37. - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Leonard, Arthur B. 1934. Distributional records of reptiles and amphibians in Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 15: 190-196 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Thornton, Okla W., Jr.;Smith, Jerry R. 1993. New county records of amphibians and reptiles from West-Central Texas. Herpetological Review 24 (1): 35-36 - get paper here
  • VanDeWalle, Terry 2022. The Natural History of the Snakes and Lizards of Iowa. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City, Iowa, 384 pp. ISBN: 978-1- 609388-37-9. [review in HR 54 (1): 151] - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • WARD, KRISTA J.; CHRISTINE S. STREID, JAKE T. WRIGHT & THOMAS M. LUHRING. 2022. Geographic distribution: REGINA GRAHAMII (Graham’s Crayfish Snake). USA: KANSAS: Elk Co. Herpetological Review 53 (2): 264.
  • Werler, John E. & James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
  • Williams, Avery A. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Regina grahamii. Herpetological Review 28 (2): 98 - get paper here
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