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Rhabdophis tigrinus (BOIE, 1826)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesRhabdophis tigrinus tigrinus (BOIE 1826)
Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus (MAKI 1931) 
Common NamesE: Tiger Keelback
G: Tiger-Wassernatter, Tigernatter 
SynonymTropidonotus tigrinus BOIE 1826: 205
Amphiesma tigrinum — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 732
Tropidonotus lateralis BERTHOLD 1859
Amphiesma tigrinum — HALLOWELL 1860: 499
Tropidonotus orientalis GÜNTHER 1861: 391
Tropidonotus tigrinus — GÜNTHER 1888: 171
Tropidonotus tigrinus — BOULENGER 1893: 249
Tropidonotus tigrinus — BOULENGER 1896: 607
Natrix tigrina — STEJNEGER 1907: 272
Natrix tigrina lateralis — STEJNEGER 1907: 278
Natrix tigrina lateralis — MELL 1931 [1929]
Natrix tigrina lateralis ab. caerulescens — EMELIANOV 1936
Natrix tigrina lateralis — GLASS 1946
Natrix tigrina — ALEXANDER & DIENER 1958
Rhabdophis tigrina — MALNATE 1960
Rhabdophis tigrinus lateralis — SZYNDLAR 1984
Rhabdophis tigrina lateralis ZHAO & JIANG 1986
Rhabdophis tigrina — KHARIN 2011
Rhabdophis lateralis — TAKEUCHI et al. 2012
Rhabdophis tigrinus — TAKEUCHI et al. 2012
Rhabdophis tigrinus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 637

Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus (MAKI 1931)
Natrix tigrina formosana MAKI 1931
Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus OTA & MORI 1985
Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus OTA et al. 1999
Rhabdophis formosanus — TAKEUCHI et al. 2012 
DistributionE Russia (Primorskiy and Khabarovsk territories)
North Korea, South Korea
China (widely distributed, except western third and extreme south; Chekiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Hupeh, Guizhou, Sichuan, Gansu, Shensi, Suiyuan), Taiwan,
Vietnam,
Japan (Yakushima, Taegashima, Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, Ryukyu Islands)

lateralis: Asian mainland

tigrinus: Japan

formosanus: Taiwan

Type locality: “Japan”, “Dejima of Nagasaki City, eastern Kyushu, Japan” (fide Zhao & Adler, 1993). Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesType: BMNH 1861.12.27.9 (and possibly additional specimens). 
CommentVenomous!

Nomenclature: “tigrina” fide KHALIKOV 1998 (pers. comm.).

Distribution: not listed for Vietnam (by SANG et al. 2009).

Diet: The diet of R. tigrinus on Kinkasan Island exclusively consisted of a frog, Rana tagoi, which is the only amphibian species inhabiting Kinkasan Island (Akira & Nagata 2016). 
References
  • Alexander, Donald R.;Diener, Richard A. 1958. A collection of amphibians and reptiles from Japan. Copeia 1958 (3): 218-219 - get paper here
  • Augstenová, Barbora; Sofia MazzoleniOrcid, Lukáš Kratochvíl Orcid and Michail Rovatsos 2017. Evolutionary Dynamics of the W Chromosome in Caenophidian Snakes Genes 2018, 9(1), 5; doi:10.3390/genes9010005 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1909. Notes on Amphibia and Reptilia from Eastern Asia. Proc. New England zool. Club 4: 53-78, 2 plates - get paper here
  • Berthold,A.A. 1859. Einige neue Reptilien des akad. zoolog. Museums in Göttingen. Nachr. Georg-August-Univ. Königl. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen, 1859 (17): 179-181
  • Boie. H. 1826. Merkmale einiger japanischer Lurche. lsis von Oken, Jena. 18-19: 203 - 216 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., G. BIBRON & A.H.A. DUMÉRIL 1854. Erpétologie générale ou Histoire Naturelle complète des Reptiles. Vol. 7 (partie 1). Paris, xvi + 780 S. - get paper here
  • Dunaev E.A., Orlova V.F. 2003. Diversity of snakes (on the materials of the exposition of the Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University). Moscow: Moscow State University Press, 376 pp
  • Dunaev E.A., Orlova V.F. 2017. Amphibians and reptiles of Russia. Atlas and determination. 2nd. ed. Moscow: Phyton XXI, 328 p
  • Emelianov, A.A. 1936. A new form from the family Natricidae (Ophidia) in the Far East of the USSR. [in Russian] Bull. Far E. Br. Acad. Sci. U.S.S.R. (19): 111-113
  • Glass, Bryan P. 1946. A collection of reptiles from Hunan and Anhwei provinces, China. Copeia 1946 (4): 249-252 - get paper here
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • Günther, A. 1861. [Letter relating to specimens sent from China by Robert Swinhoe]. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1861: 390-391 [1862?] - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1888. On a collection of reptiles from China. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 1: 165-172 - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1861. Report upon the Reptilia of the North Pacific Exploring Expedition, under command of Capt. John Rogers, U. S. N. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12 [1860]: 480 - 510 - get paper here
  • Itoh, Masahiro; Sasaki, Motomichi; Makino, Sajiro. 1970. The chromosomes of some Japanese snakes, with special regard to sexual dimorphism. Japanese Journal of Genetics 45(2):121-128
  • Kharin V E 2011. Annotated catalogue of amphibians and reptiles (Amphibia, Reptilia) of the Far-Eastern Marine Biosphere FEB RAS [in Russian]. Biodiversity and Environment of Far East Reserves, Vladivostok, DVMBGPZ DVO RAN 2011 (1): 30-48
  • Macey, J. Robert;Papenfuss, Theodore J.;Zhao, Ermi 1988. The snakes of Ningxia Hui autonomous region as an indication of a herpetofaunal corridor. Chinese Herpetological Research 2 (1): 4-5
  • Matsubara, Kazumi;Chizuko Nishida, Yoichi Matsuda, and Yoshinori Kumazawa 2016. Sex chromosome evolution in snakes inferred from divergence patterns of two gametologous genes and chromosome distribution of sex chromosome-linked repetitive sequences. Matsubara et al. Zoological Letters (2016) 2:19 - get paper here
  • Mell,R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Sci. Jour., Canton, 8 [1929]: 199-219.
  • Mori, Akira and Eiko Nagata 2016. Relying on a Single Anuran Species: Feeding Ecology of a Snake Community on Kinkasan Island, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan Current Herpetology Aug 2016, Vol. 35, No. 2: 106-114. - get paper here
  • Mori,M. 1982. Japans Schlangen, Vols. 1-3 (80, 102, 123 pp.). Tokyo (Igaku-Shoin Ltd.) [bilingual edition in German and Japanese]
  • Nietzke, G. 2002. Die Terrarientiere 3: Krokodile und Schlangen. Ulmer Verlag (Stuttgart), 375 pp.
  • Ota, H.;Mori, A. 1985. Notes on the fourth collected specimen of Rhabdophis tigrinus formosanus and the morphological features characteristic of this subspecies. Japanese Journal of Herpetology 11: 41-45
  • Ota, Hidetoshi, Szu-Lung Chen, Jun-Tsong Lin and Michihisa Toriba. 1999. Taxonomic status of the Taiwanese population of Rhabdophis tigrinus (Squamata: Colubridae): Morphological and karyological assessement. Japanese Journal of Herpetology 18 (1): 1-6
  • Seung Hoon, Cha 2012. Snake, the world most beautifull curve [in Korean]. Hownext, 304 pp. [ISBN 978-89-965656-7-3] - get paper here
  • Shannon, F.A. 1956. The reptiles and amphibians of Korea. Herpetologica 12 (1): 22-49 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Szyndlar, Z. 1984. A description of a small collection of amphibians and reptiles from the People's Democratic Republic of Korea, with notes on the distribution of the herpetofauna in that country. Acta Zool. Cracov. 27 (1): 3-18
  • TAKEUCHI, HIROHIKO; HIDETOSHI OTA FLS,, HONG-SHIK OH and TSUTOMU HIKIDA 2012. Extensive genetic divergence in the East Asian natricine snake, Rhabdophis tigrinus (Serpentes: Colubridae), with special reference to prominent geographical differentiation of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Japanese populations. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2012, 105, 395–408
  • Toriba, Michihisa 2002. On the blue color phase of Rhabdophis tigrinus [in Japanese]. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan 2002(2):68-69. - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinstein, Scott A. 2017. Non-Front-Fanged Colubroid Snakes. In: J. Brent et al. (eds.), Critical Care Toxicology. Springer Verlag, pp. 2453-2492 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
  • ZHU, GUANG-XIANG; YING-YONG WANG,HIROHIKO TAKEUCHI & ER-MI ZHAO 2014. A new species of the genus Rhabdophis Fitzinger, 1843 (Squamata: Colubridae) from Guangdong Province, southern China. Zootaxa 3765 (5): 469–480
  • ZHU, Guangxiang; ZHAO Ermi, WEI Mengjing, GUO Peng 2014. A Multivariate Morphometric Analysis of Rhabdophis tigrinus lateralis (Squamata: Colubridae) from the Herpetofauna of China. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 33 (3) - get paper here
 
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