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Rhinoclemmys punctularia (DAUDIN, 1801)

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Rhinoclemmydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesRhinoclemmys punctularia punctularia DAUDIN 1801
Rhinoclemmys punctularia flammigera PAOLILLO 1985 
Common NamesSpotted-legged Turtle
punctularia: Eastern Spot-legged Turtle
flammigera: Upper Orinoco Spot-legged Turtle 
SynonymTestudo punctularia DAUDIN 1801 : 249
Testudo verrucosa WALBAUM 1782 (nomen illegitimum)
Testudo verrucosa SUCKOW 1798
Testudo dorsata SCHOEPFF 1801 (nomen oblitum)
Emys Punctularia — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 243
Emys Punctularia — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 225
Emys punctularia — GÜNTHER 1885: 9
Nicoria punctularia BOULENGER 1889
Geoemyda punctularia WERMUTH & MERTENS 1961
Rhinoclemmys punctularia — BOUR 2007
Rhinoclemmys punctularia — RIVAS et al. 2012

Rhinoclemmys punctularia punctularia DAUDIN 1801
Clemmys (Rhinoclemmys) dorsata SCHOEPFF 1801
Emys dorsalis SPIX 1824
Rhinoclemys bellii GRAY 1863
Geoclemys callocephalus GRAY 1863
Rhinoclemmys callocephala — GRAY 1873: 144
Geoemyda punctularia punctularia WETTSTEIN 1934
Rhinoclemmys punctularia punctularia — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Rhinoclemmys punctularia punctularia — TTWG 2014

Rhinoclemmys punctularia flammigera PAOLILLO 1985
Rhinoclemmys punctularia flammigera — OBST 2003: 18
Rhinoclemmys flammigera — BARRIO-AMORÓS & NARBAIZA 2008
Rhinoclemmys punctularia flammigera — VAN DIJK et al. 2011
Rhinoclemmys flammigera — RIVAS et al. 2012
Rhinoclemmys punctularia flammigera — TTWG 2014 
DistributionE Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, Guyana, French Guiana, Suriname, NE Brazil (Tocantins, Pará, Amazon, Bahia, Maranhão, as far upstream as the lower reaches of the Tapajós river.)

Type locality: "Cayenne," French Guiana.

flammigera: S Venezuela (region of confluence of the
Ventuari and Orinoco rivers). Type locality: Caño Maica, 10 km SE of Carmelitas, Territorio Federal Amazonas, Venezuela (4°4'N, 66°31'W). See maps in TTWG 2014: 390 (isolated spot on the left) and Paolillo 1985: 304.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 9130.
Holotype: EBRG 1467, female; paratypes: EBRG, MBUCV [flammigera] 
Diagnosis 
CommentHybridization: Hybrids between Rhinoclemmys diademata and R. punctularia and between R. punctularia and R. melanosterna have been described by FRITZ (1995).

Subspecies: Fretey et al (1977) consider Rhinoclemmys punctularia lunata GRAY 1873 as an individual aberration of Rhinoclemmys punctularia punctularia. GORZULA & SEÑARIS (1998) consider flammigera either a western extreme cline, or a local aberration of Rhinoclemmys punctularia.

Type species: Clemmys (Rhinoclemmys) dorsata SCHOEPFF 1801 is the type species of the genus Rhinoclemmys FITZINGER 1836: 115. 
EtymologyThe name Rhinoclemmys is derived from the Greek words rhinos (nose, snout, beak, bill) and klemmys (tortoise, turtle). The name alludes to the protuberant snout exhibited by some individuals of the type species. 
References
  • Avila-Pires, Teresa C.S.; Kleiton R. Alves-Silva, Laís Barbosa, Fabrício S. Correa, Jorge F. A. Cosenza, Ana Paula V. Costa-Rodrigues, Aurea A. Cronemberger, Marinus S. Hoogmoed, Geraldo R. Lima-Filho, Adriano O. Maciel, Alexandre F. R. Missassi, Lyw 2018. Changes in Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Over Time in Parque Estadual do Utinga, a Protected Area Surrounded by Urbanization Herpetology Notes 11: 499-512 - get paper here
  • Barrio-Amorós, C.L. & Narbaiza, Í. 2008. Turtles of the Venezuelan Estado Amazonas. Radiata 17: 2–19
  • Barros, R. B.; Sampaio, M. M.; Assis, M. R.; Ayres, M.; Cunha, O. 1975. A Karyological Study of Geoemyda punctularia punctularia (Daudin, 1802) from the Amazon Region of Brazil (Chelonia, Emydidae). Acta Amazon. 5:95-96 - get paper here
  • Bonini-Domingos, C.R.; M.B. Silva, R.M. Romero, P.J.A. Zamaro, L.S. Ondei, C.E.S. Zago, S.B. Moreira and C.G. Salgado 2007. Description of electrophoretic and chromatographic hemoglobin profile of Rhinoclemmys punctularia. Genetics and Molecular Research 6 (2): 415-421
  • Bour, R. 2007. The type specimens of Rhinoclemmys areolata (Duméril & Bibron, 1851), R. pulcherrima incisa (Bocourt, 1868), and R. punctularia (Daudin, 1801). Emys 14 (2): 28-34
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  • Fitzinger, Leopold 1836. Entwurf einer Systematischen Anordnung der Schildkröten nach den Grundsätzen der Natürlichen methode. Annalen des Wiener Museums der Naturgeschichte 1 (1): 103-128 [1835][Facsimile Reprint, SSAR 1997] - get paper here
  • Fretey, J., M.S. Hoogmoed, and J. Lescure. 1977. Etude taxinomique de Rhinoclemmys punctularia punctularia (Daudin) (Testudinata, Emydidae). Zoologische Mededelingen. Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Histoire (Leiden) 52 (6): 63-80.
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  • Pritchard, P.C.H., and P. Trebbau. 1984. The Turtles of Venezuela. SSAR Contributions to Herpetology 2: viii + 402 pp.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
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