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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common Names 
DistributionIran (Ilam Province)

Type locality: Bina & Bijar No-hunting area (33.640668N, 46.038949E, 724 m asl), Ilam Province, Iran  
TypesHolotype: YUZM-CRh.1: road-kill, adult male, collected on June 6th 2011.
Paratypes: YUZM-CRh.2: adult female, collected at Dinaar-Kooh preserved area (32.948156N, 47.333236E, 1383 m asl), Abdanan, Ilam Province, Iran on August 3rd, 2013.
YUZM-CRh.3: juvenile, collected at Dinaar-Kooh preserved area (32.952591N, 47.344166E, 1180 m asl), Abdanan, Ilam Province, Iran on August 3rd, 2013 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: not provided

Comparison. A number of meristic and multistate characters differentiate Rhynchocalamus ilamensis sp. nov. from its congeners (R. arabicus, R. melanocephalus and R. satunini): dorsum lemon in color (black in R. arabicus, yellowish brown in R. melanocephalus and pinkish in R. satunini); ventral white (black in R. arabicus, yellowish white in R. melanocephalus and pinkish in R. satunini); head uniformly lemon without marking(s) (uniformly black in R. arabicus and R. melanocephalus, and black transvers stripes on parietals and prefrontal in R. satunini); dark neck marking as a thin U-shape or two separated blotches (uniformly black in R. arabicus and R. melanocephalus, a thick transverse black marking in R. satunini); neck band not in contact with ventrals (unknown in R. arabicus; in contact with ventrals in R. melanocephalus, not in contact with ventrals in R. satunini); neckband not in contact with head or headband (unknown in R. arabicus; in contact with headband in R. melanocephalus; not in contact with headband in R. satunini); seven supralabials (4–6 in R. arabicus, 6 in R. melanocephalus, 7–8 in R. satunini); nine infralabials (8 in R. arabicus, mostly 7 in R. melanocephalus, mostly 8 in R. satunini). 
CommentSynonymy: Rajabizadeh 2018 synonymized Rhynchocalamus ilamensis with Lytorhynchus levitoni.

Habitat: limestone western foothills of the Zagros Mountains. Habitat cover is made of annual to perennial plants such as Gramineae (annual grasses), bushes and shrubs (Capparidaceae: Capparis spinosa, Cleome oxypetala; Caryophyllaceae: Gypsophyla linearifolia, G. pallida; Chenopodiaceae: Halocharis sulphurea, Noaea mucronata, Salsola imbricate; Compositae: Achillea conferta; Rosaceae: Amygdalus arabica), and sparse trees (Quercus brantii and Pistachia atlantica).

Sympatry: Agamidae: Laudakia nupta, Trapelus ruderatus; Lacertidae: Ophisops elegans, Acanthodactylus boskianus; Eublepharidae: Eublepharis angramainyu; Gekkonidae: Hemidactylus persicus, Mediodactylus heteropholis, M. ilamensis; Phyllodactylidae: Asaccus elisae; Scincidae: Ablepharus panonicus, Heremites auratus; Varanidae: Varanus nesterovi; Typhlopidae: Xerotyphlops vermicularis; Leptotyphlopidae: Myriopholis macrorhyncha; Boidae: Eryx jaculus; Colubridae: Eirenis persicus, E. punctatolineatus, E. coronelloides, Hemorhois ravergieri, Platyceps rhodorachis, Spalerosophis microlepis, Malpolon insignitus, Psammophis schokari, Telescopus tessellatus; Elapidae: Walterinnesia morgani; Viperidae: Macrovipera lebetina, Pseudocerastes persicus, P. urarachnoides. 
EtymologyNamed after Ilam Province in Iran. 
  • FATHINIA, BEHZAD; ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH RASTEGAR-POUYANI, HAMID DARVISHNIA 2017. A new species of the genus Rhynchocalamus Günther, 1864 (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from Ilam province in western Iran. Zootaxa 4282 (3): - get paper here
  • Rajabizadeh, M. 2017. Snakes of Iran. [in Farsi] Tehran: Iranshenasi, 496 pp. - get paper here
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