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Sacalia bealei (GRAY, 1831)

IUCN Red List - Sacalia bealei - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Eyed Turtle, Beal’s Four-Eyed turtle
G: Chinesische Pfauenaugen-Wasserschildkröte 
SynonymCistuda bealei GRAY 1831: 71
Emys Bealei — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 325
Clemmys bealii — STRAUCH 1862
Clemmys bealei — BOULENGER 1889
Clemmys bealei — SCHMIDT 1927
Sacalia bealei — MCDOWELL 1964
Mauremys bealei — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977
Clemmys bealei — XIANGKUI 1994
Sacalia bealei — SCHILDE 1999
Sacalia bealei — OBST 2003: 18
Sacalia bealei — TTWG 2014 
DistributionS China (Guangdong, Fujian, Fukien, Kwangtung, Kwangsi, Jiangxi, and Hainan Island), N Vietnam

Type locality: "China".  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1947.3.4.33 and 1947.3.4.42. 
Diagnosis 
CommentPicture in Draco 13 (4): 92 (2003). Clemmys bealii var. quadriocellata SIEBENROCK 1903 has been elevated to species status (distribution not corrected for elevation). Not in Vietnam according to MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2004.

Type species: Cistuda bealei GRAY 1831: 71 is the type species of the genus Sacalia GRAY 1870: 35.

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps) 
EtymologyMost likely named after Thomas Beale (I775-1842), an Englishman who lived in Macao and Canton for 40 years from 1792. Gray only refers to “Mr. Beale” without any further details (Beolens et al. 2011). 
References
  • Abdala, V.; Manzano, A.S. & Herrel, A. 2008. The distal forelimb musculature in aquatic and terrestrial turtles: phylogeny or environmental constraints?. J. Anat. 213: 159–172
  • Anonymous 2016. Testudinate China [in both English and Chinese] Testudinate Industry Branch of the China Fishery Association, published on occasion of WCH8; author not explicitly stated, 54 pp.
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bickham, John W. 1975. A Cytosystematic Study of Turtles in the Genera Clemmys, Mauremys, and Sacalia. Herpetologica 31: 198-204 - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Bourret, R. 1941. Les tortues de l'Indochine. Institut Océanographique l'Indochine 38:1-235
  • Buskirk, James R. 1989. New locality records for Chinese non-marine chelonians [Chinemys reevesii nigricans, Cistoclemmys flavomarginata, Cuora galbinifrons hainanensis pani, Mauremys mutica, Clemmys Oscadia sinensis, Sacalia bealei quadriocellata, Platysternon megacephalum Chinese Herpetological Research 2 (2): 65-68
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Fong, J.J. & Qiao, G.X. 2010. New localities of endangered Chinese turtles from museum specimens and the practical and ethical challenges using and reporting natural history collection data. Zootaxa 2393: 59–68 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1831. Synopsis Reptilium or short descriptions of the species of reptiles. Part I: Cataphracta, tortoises, crocodiles, and enaliosaurians. Treuttel, Wurz & Co., London, 85 pp.
  • Hennen, U. 2000. Erhaltungszuchtstation für asiatische Schildkröten braucht noch Unterstützung. Elaphe 8 (4): 71-72
  • Irrek, F. & Pante, H. 2009. Bemerkungen zur Gelegegröße bei Sacalia bealei (GRAY, 1831) und Sacalia quadriocellata (SIEBENROCK 1903). Reptilia (Münster) 14 (75): 3-6 - get paper here
  • Lee, J. C.I.; Tsai, L.C.; Liao, S.P.; Linacre, A. & Hsieh, H.M. 2009. Species identification using the cytochrome b gene of commercial turtle shells. Forensic Science International: Genetics 3: 67–73
  • Lin, Liu; Daniel Gaillard, Qingru Hu, Jiangbo Yang, Zhongdong Chen, Feiyu Zhou, Fanrong Xiao, and Haitao Shi 2017. Sexual Dimorphism in Body Size and Shape of Beal's Eyed Turtle (Sacalia bealei) Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2017, Vol. 16, No. 2: 180-184.
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2004. Chelonian Illustrations #16: Pond, Thread, and Four-Eyed Turtles of Eastern Asia. Reptilia (GB) (36): 10-13 - get paper here
  • McDowell, S.B. 1964. Partition of the Genus Clemmys and related problems in the taxonomy of the aquatic Testudinidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 143 (2): 239-279. - get paper here
  • Mell,R. 1938. Beiträge zur Fauna Sinica. VI. Aus der Biologie chinesischer Schildkröten. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, N.F., 7 (3): 390-475.
  • Nicol, Ellen 1998. Four-eyed turtles Sacalis bealei and Sacalia quadriocellata. Reptiles 6 (3): 40-43
  • Obst, F.J. 2003. Sumpfschildkröten. Draco 4 (13): 4-18 - get paper here
  • Rödel, M.-O. 1985. Zum Verhalten von Sacalia bealei (GRAY, 1831) (Testudines: Emydidae) Salamandra 21 (2-3): 123-131 - get paper here
  • Rödel, M.-O. & G. PRAEDICOW 1988. Die Chinesische Vieraugenschildkröte - Sacalia bealei (GRAY 1831). Sauria 10 (4): 3-8 - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 1999. Haltung und Zucht von Sacalia bealei und Sacalia quadriocellata. Elaphe 7 (2): 2-6
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1927. The reptiles of Hainan. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 54(3): 395-466 (-575?)
  • Shi, Haitao; Jonathan J. Fong, James F. Parham, Junfeng Pang, Jichao Wang, Meiling Hong, Ya-Ping Zhang 2008. Mitochondrial variation of the “eyed” turtles (Sacalia) based on known-locality and trade specimens. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49 (3): 1025-1029 - get paper here
  • Shiping, Gong; Haitao Shi, Jonathan J. Fong and Michael Lau. 2009. Recent records of freshwater turtles from Guangdong, China. Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter 13:24-27
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • Wermuth, H., and R. Mertens. 1977. Liste der rezenten Amphibien und Reptilien. Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhynchocephalia. Das Tierreich. Berlin. 100: i-xxvii, 1-174
  • Xiangkui-Y 1994. Fossil and recent turtles of China. Science Press, Beijing. 1994: i-vi, 1-112
 
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