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Sacalia quadriocellata (SIEBENROCK, 1903)

IUCN Red List - Sacalia quadriocellata - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Four-Eyed Turtle
G: Vietnamesische Pfauenaugen-Wasserschildkröte
Chinese: 四眼斑水龟 
SynonymClemmys bealii var. quadriocellata SIEBENROCK 1903
Clemmys beali insulensis ADLER 1962: 135 (nom. nov.)
Sacalia bealei quadriocellata — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989: 187
Sacalia pseudocellata IVERSON & MCCORD 1992: 426 (part.)
Sacalia quadriocellata — SCHILDE 1999
Sacalia quadriocellata — HENNEN 2000
Sacalia quadriocellata — ZIEGLER 2002: 150
Sacalia quadriocellata — OBST 2003: 18
Sacalia quadriocellata insularis — ARTNER 2003: xviii (nomen invalidum)
Sacalia quadriocellata — TTWG 2014
Sacalia insulensis — LIN et al. 2018
Sacalia insulensis — WANG et al. 2021
Sacalia quadriocellata — TTWG 2021
Sacalia insulensis — BU et al. 2023 
DistributionSE China (incl. Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Fujian), Vietnam, Laos

Type locality: "Annam", Vietnam.  
TypesHolotype: NMW 
CommentSynonymy: partly after TTWG 2014. Has been synonymized with S. bealii previously. TTWG 2021 considered S. insulensis as a synonym of quadriocellata based on the Le et al. 2020

Hybridization: Hybrids between Cyclemys (= Mauremys) reevesii and Sacalia quadriocellata have been reported by BUSKIRK et al. (2005). STUART & PARHAM (2007) showed that Sacalia pseudocellata is a hybrid of Sacalia quadriocellata and Cuora trifasciata.

Shi et al. (2008) performed a mitochondrial survey of S. quadriocellata based on known-locality and trade specimens. They found that populations on Hainan are genetically distinct and can also be diagnosed by morphological characters. They did not elevate these populations to species status, but LIN et al. 2018 did and applied the name Sacalia insulensis (Adler 1962) to these populations. They also noted that samples of S. quadriocellata from northern Vietnam are genetically distinct from those from Laos and the type region of central Vietnam, but there appear to be no obvious morphological differences between these populations, hence we leave them within Sacalia quadriocellata for the time being.

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps)

Distribution: possibly in Yunnan (China) but records from there are questionable (Wang et al. 2022). Not in Hainan where it is replaced by S. sinensis fide Bu et al. 2023, Chelonian Conservation and Biology, 22: 80-88). 
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