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Sacalia quadriocellata (SIEBENROCK, 1903)

IUCN Red List - Sacalia quadriocellata - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Common NamesE: Four-Eyed Turtle
G: Vietnamesische Pfauenaugen-Wasserschildkröte 
SynonymClemmys bealii var. quadriocellata SIEBENROCK 1903
Sacalia pseudocellata IVERSON & MCCORD 1992: 426 (part.)
Sacalia quadriocellata — SCHILDE 1999
Sacalia quadriocellata — HENNEN 2000
Sacalia quadriocellata — ZIEGLER 2002: 150
Sacalia quadriocellata — OBST 2003: 18
Sacalia quadriocellata — TTWG 2014 
DistributionSE China (incl. Hainan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Jiangxi), Vietnam, Laos

Type locality: "Annam", Vietnam.  
TypesHolotype: NMW 
CommentSynonymy: partly after TTWG 2014. Has been synonymized with S. bealii previously.

Hybridization: Hybrids between Cyclemys (= Mauremys) reevesii and Sacalia quadriocellata have been reported by BUSKIRK et al. (2005). STUART & PARHAM (2007) showed that Sacalia pseudocellata is a hybrid of Sacalia quadriocellata and Cuora trifasciata.

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps) 
  • Anonymous 2016. Testudinate China [in both English and Chinese] Testudinate Industry Branch of the China Fishery Association, published on occasion of WCH8; author not explicitly stated, 54 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Buskirk, J.R.; J.F. Parham & C.R. Feldman 2005. On the hybridisation between two distantly related Asian turtles (Testudines: Sacalia x Mauremys). Salamandra 41 (1-2): 21-26 - get paper here
  • Dalton, Rex 2003. Mock turtles. Nature 423: 219-220
  • Duong, Loi Duc; Chung Dac Ngo and Truong Quang Nguyen 2014. New records of turtles from Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam Herpetology Notes 7: 737-744
  • Fong, J.J. & Qiao, G.X. 2010. New localities of endangered Chinese turtles from museum specimens and the practical and ethical challenges using and reporting natural history collection data. Zootaxa 2393: 59–68 - get paper here
  • GONG, Shi-ping, SHI, Hai-tao, WANG, Ji-chao; FU You-li 2007. Geographic Distribution of Sacalia quadriocellata on Hainan Island. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 26 (2) - get paper here
  • Hennen, U. 2000. Erhaltungszuchtstation für asiatische Schildkröten braucht noch Unterstützung. Elaphe 8 (4): 71-72
  • Irrek, F. & Pante, H. 2009. Bemerkungen zur Gelegegröße bei Sacalia bealei (GRAY, 1831) und Sacalia quadriocellata (SIEBENROCK 1903). Reptilia (Münster) 14 (75): 3-6 - get paper here
  • Iverson,J.B. & McCord,W.P. 1992. A new Chinese eyed turtle of the genus Sacalia (Batagurinae: Testudines). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 105 (3): 426-432 - get paper here
  • Lee, J. C.I.; Tsai, L.C.; Liao, S.P.; Linacre, A. & Hsieh, H.M. 2009. Species identification using the cytochrome b gene of commercial turtle shells. Forensic Science International: Genetics 3: 67–73
  • Lourenço, João M.; Julien Claude, Nicolas Galtier, Ylenia Chiari 2011. Dating cryptodiran nodes: Origin and diversification of the turtle superfamily Testudinoidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (1): - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2004. Chelonian Illustrations #16: Pond, Thread, and Four-Eyed Turtles of Eastern Asia. Reptilia (GB) (36): 10-13 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Nicol, Ellen 1998. Four-eyed turtles Sacalis bealei and Sacalia quadriocellata. Reptiles 6 (3): 40-43
  • Obst, F.J. 2003. Sumpfschildkröten. Draco 4 (13): 4-18 - get paper here
  • Parham, James Ford ; W. Brian Simison; Kenneth H. Kozak; Chris R. Feldman and Haitao Shi 2001. New Chinese turtles: endangered or invalid? A reassessment of two species using mitochondrial DNA, allozyme electrophoresis and known-locality specimens. Animal Conservation 4: 357–367 [erratum in Animal Conservation 5:86]
  • Sachsse, W. 1975. Chinemys reevesi var. unicolor und Clemmys bealei var. quadriocellata. Ausprägungen von Sexualdimorphismus der beiden "Nominatformen". Salamandra 11: 20-26 - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 1999. Haltung und Zucht von Sacalia bealei und Sacalia quadriocellata. Elaphe 7 (2): 2-6
  • Schilde, M. 1999. Weitere Erkenntnisse zur Nachzucht der Vieraugenschildkröte, Sacalia quadriocellata. Elaphe 7 (4): 5-8
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Shi, Haitao; Jonathan J. Fong, James F. Parham, Junfeng Pang, Jichao Wang, Meiling Hong, Ya-Ping Zhang 2008. Mitochondrial variation of the “eyed” turtles (Sacalia) based on known-locality and trade specimens. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49 (3): 1025-1029 - get paper here
  • Siebenrock, F. 1903. Schildkröten des östlichen Hinterindien. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. 112 (1): 333-353 - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.L. & Parham, J.F. 2007. Recent hybrid origin of three rare Chinese turtles. Conservation Genetics 8:169–175
  • Suzuki, Dai; Kengo Fuse, Mitsuhiro Aizu, Satoshi Yoshizawa, Wataru Tanaka, Kunio Araya, and Bounthob Praxaysombath 2015. Reptile Diversity in Food Markets in Laos. Current Herpetology 34 (2): 112-119 - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • Yu, Dongmei; Jianjun Peng; Lili Wang; Shijia Hu; Cuina Xin; Yushu Zhang 2009. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite loci developed from the four-eyed turtle (Sacalia quadriocellata). Conservation Genet Resour 1:261–263
  • Ziegler, T. 2002. Die Amphibien und Reptilien eines Tieflandfeuchtwald-Schutzgebietes in Vietnam. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 342 pp. - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T., RAUHAUS, A., TRAN, T.D., PHAM, C.T., VAN SCHINGEN, M., DANG, P.H., LE, M.D. & NGUYEN, T.Q. 2015. Die Amphibien- und Reptilienfauna der Me-Linh-Biodiversitätsstation in Nordvietnam Sauria 37 (4): 11-44 - get paper here
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