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Sacalia quadriocellata (SIEBENROCK, 1903)

IUCN Red List - Sacalia quadriocellata - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaGeoemydidae (Geoemydinae), Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Four-Eyed Turtle
G: Vietnamesische Pfauenaugen-Wasserschildkröte
Chinese: 四眼斑水龟 
SynonymClemmys bealii var. quadriocellata SIEBENROCK 1903
Sacalia beali insulensis ADLER 1962: 135 (nom. nov.)
Sacalia pseudocellata IVERSON & MCCORD 1992: 426 (part.)
Sacalia quadriocellata — SCHILDE 1999
Sacalia quadriocellata — HENNEN 2000
Sacalia quadriocellata — ZIEGLER 2002: 150
Sacalia quadriocellata — OBST 2003: 18
Sacalia quadriocellata — TTWG 2014
Sacalia insulensis — LIN et al. 2018 
DistributionSE China (incl. Hainan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Jiangxi), Vietnam, Laos

Type locality: "Annam", Vietnam.  
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: NMW 
Diagnosis 
CommentSynonymy: partly after TTWG 2014. Has been synonymized with S. bealii previously.

Hybridization: Hybrids between Cyclemys (= Mauremys) reevesii and Sacalia quadriocellata have been reported by BUSKIRK et al. (2005). STUART & PARHAM (2007) showed that Sacalia pseudocellata is a hybrid of Sacalia quadriocellata and Cuora trifasciata.

Shi et al. (2008) performed a mitochondrial survey of S. quadriocellata based on known-locality and trade specimens. They found that populations on Hainan are genetically distinct and can also be diagnosed by morphological characters. They did not elevate these populations to species status, but LIN et al. 2018 did and applied the name Sacalia insulensis (Adler 1962) to these populations. They also noted that samples of S. quadriocellata from northern Vietnam are genetically distinct from those from Laos and the type region of central Vietnam, but there appear to be no obvious morphological differences between these populations.

Habitat: freshwater (Rivers, swamps) 
Etymology 
References
  • Adler, K.K. 1962. A new name for a Chinese turtle, genus Clemmys. Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society 20 (2): 135
  • Anonymous 2016. Testudinate China [in both English and Chinese] Testudinate Industry Branch of the China Fishery Association, published on occasion of WCH8; author not explicitly stated, 54 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Buskirk, J.R.; J.F. Parham & C.R. Feldman 2005. On the hybridisation between two distantly related Asian turtles (Testudines: Sacalia x Mauremys). Salamandra 41 (1-2): 21-26 - get paper here
  • Dalton, Rex 2003. Mock turtles. Nature 423: 219-220
  • Duong, Loi Duc; Chung Dac Ngo and Truong Quang Nguyen 2014. New records of turtles from Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam. Herpetology Notes 7: 737-744
  • Fong, J.J. & Qiao, G.X. 2010. New localities of endangered Chinese turtles from museum specimens and the practical and ethical challenges using and reporting natural history collection data. Zootaxa 2393: 59–68 - get paper here
  • GONG, Shi-ping, SHI, Hai-tao, WANG, Ji-chao; FU You-li 2007. Geographic Distribution of Sacalia quadriocellata on Hainan Island. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 26 (2) - get paper here
  • Hennen, U. 2000. Erhaltungszuchtstation für asiatische Schildkröten braucht noch Unterstützung. Elaphe 8 (4): 71-72
  • Irrek, F. & Pante, H. 2009. Bemerkungen zur Gelegegröße bei Sacalia bealei (GRAY, 1831) und Sacalia quadriocellata (SIEBENROCK 1903). Reptilia (Münster) 14 (75): 3-6 - get paper here
  • Iverson,J.B. & McCord,W.P. 1992. A new Chinese eyed turtle of the genus Sacalia (Batagurinae: Testudines). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 105 (3): 426-432 - get paper here
  • Lee, J. C.I.; Tsai, L.C.; Liao, S.P.; Linacre, A. & Hsieh, H.M. 2009. Species identification using the cytochrome b gene of commercial turtle shells. Forensic Science International: Genetics 3: 67–73
  • Lin, L.; Sun, :., Wang, W & Shi, H. 2018. Taxonomic status and nomenclature of four eye-spotted turtle from Hainan Island. Sichuan J Zool. 37 (4): 435-438
  • Lourenço, João M.; Julien Claude, Nicolas Galtier, Ylenia Chiari 2011. Dating cryptodiran nodes: Origin and diversification of the turtle superfamily Testudinoidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (1): - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2004. Chelonian Illustrations #16: Pond, Thread, and Four-Eyed Turtles of Eastern Asia. Reptilia (GB) (36): 10-13 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Nicol, Ellen 1998. Four-eyed turtles Sacalis bealei and Sacalia quadriocellata. Reptiles 6 (3): 40-43
  • Obst, F.J. 2003. Sumpfschildkröten. Draco 4 (13): 4-18 - get paper here
  • Parham, James Ford ; W. Brian Simison; Kenneth H. Kozak; Chris R. Feldman and Haitao Shi 2001. New Chinese turtles: endangered or invalid? A reassessment of two species using mitochondrial DNA, allozyme electrophoresis and known-locality specimens. Animal Conservation 4: 357–367 [erratum in Animal Conservation 5:86]
  • Sachsse, W. 1975. Chinemys reevesi var. unicolor und Clemmys bealei var. quadriocellata. Ausprägungen von Sexualdimorphismus der beiden "Nominatformen". Salamandra 11: 20-26 - get paper here
  • Schilde, M. 1999. Weitere Erkenntnisse zur Nachzucht der Vieraugenschildkröte, Sacalia quadriocellata. Elaphe 7 (4): 5-8
  • Schilde, M. 1999. Haltung und Zucht von Sacalia bealei und Sacalia quadriocellata. Elaphe 7 (2): 2-6
  • Schilde, M. 2004. Asiatische Sumpfschildkröten - Die Familie Geoemydidae in Südostasien, China und Japan. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Shi, Haitao; Jonathan J. Fong, James F. Parham, Junfeng Pang, Jichao Wang, Meiling Hong, Ya-Ping Zhang 2008. Mitochondrial variation of the “eyed” turtles (Sacalia) based on known-locality and trade specimens. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 49 (3): 1025-1029 - get paper here
  • Siebenrock, F. 1903. Schildkröten des östlichen Hinterindien. Sitzungsberichte der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Klasse. 112 (1): 333-353 - get paper here
  • Stuart, B.L. & Parham, J.F. 2007. Recent hybrid origin of three rare Chinese turtles. Conservation Genetics 8:169–175
  • Suzuki, Dai; Kengo Fuse, Mitsuhiro Aizu, Satoshi Yoshizawa, Wataru Tanaka, Kunio Araya, and Bounthob Praxaysombath 2015. Reptile Diversity in Food Markets in Laos. Current Herpetology 34 (2): 112-119 - get paper here
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • Yu, Dongmei; Jianjun Peng; Lili Wang; Shijia Hu; Cuina Xin; Yushu Zhang 2009. Twenty polymorphic microsatellite loci developed from the four-eyed turtle (Sacalia quadriocellata). Conservation Genet Resour 1:261–263
  • Ziegler, T. 2002. Die Amphibien und Reptilien eines Tieflandfeuchtwald-Schutzgebietes in Vietnam. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 342 pp. - get paper here
  • Ziegler, T., RAUHAUS, A., TRAN, T.D., PHAM, C.T., VAN SCHINGEN, M., DANG, P.H., LE, M.D. & NGUYEN, T.Q. 2015. Die Amphibien- und Reptilienfauna der Me-Linh-Biodiversitätsstation in Nordvietnam. Sauria 37 (4): 11-44 - get paper here
 
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