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Salvadora grahamiae BAIRD & GIRARD, 1853

IUCN Red List - Salvadora grahamiae - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesSalvadora grahamiae grahamiae BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Salvadora grahamiae lineata SCHMIDT 1940 
Common NamesE: Mountain Patchnose Snake
grahamiae: Mountain Patchnose Snake
lineata: Texas Patchnose Snake
G: Berg-Pflasternasennatter 
SynonymSalvadora grahamiae BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 104
Phymothyra grahamiae — COPE 1879: 262
Salvadora grahamiae — GARMAN 1884: 37
Salvadora grahamiae — STEBBINS 1985: 185
Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae — TANNER 1985: 640
Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 192
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 193
Salvadora grahamiae — LINER 1994
Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae — DIXON 2000
Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 303
Salvadora grahamiae grahamiae — CROTHER et al. 2012
Salvadora grahamiae — WALLACH et al. 2014: 659

Salvadora grahamiae lineata SCHMIDT 1940
Salvadora lineata SCHMIDT 1940
Salvadora lineata — MARTIN 1958
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — WEBB 1984
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — CROTHER 2000
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — DIXON 2000
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 304
Salvadora grahamiae lineata — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (SW Arizona, New Mexico, Texas),
Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, Quéretaro, Hidalgo)

grahamiae: W Texas, New Mexico; Mexico (Chihuahua

lineata: USA (Texas), Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Durango, Zacatecas); type locality: Kingsville, Kleburg County, Texas.

Type locality: Sonora Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: USNM 2081 
CommentType species: Salvadora grahamiae BAIRD & GIRARD 1853 is the type species of the genus Salvadora BAIRD in BAIRD & GIRARD 1853.

Synonymy: Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic name Aiselfakharius Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected its use instead of Salvadora.

Diagnosis. A Salvadora with edges of rostral only slightly raised; posterior chin shields in contact or narrowly separated; eight upper labials (occasionally nine); ventrals fewer than in deserticola and hexalepis, and caudals more numerous; caudals more numerous than in lineata, from which it is further distinguished by the usual absence of the lateral narrow line and by the broader dorsal light band; no supra-anal keels in adult males [from SCHMIDT 1940].

Diagnosis [lineata]: A Salvadora with rostral edges little raised, posterior chin shields in contact or narrowly separated, upper labials almost invariably 8-8, lower labials more frequently 9 than 10, ventrals few, 179 to 192 in males, 189 to 194 in females, caudals 90 to 103 in males, 91 to 93 in females. Supra-anal scales not keeled. In most of these characters lineata agrees with grahamiae; it is sharply distinguished from that form by having a well-defined lateral line, which is on the third scale row anteriorly (the second posteriorly). The anterior section of the nasal is usually in contact with the second labial, and the dorsolateral dark stripe passes over the temporal region to the eye [from SCHMIDT 1940]. 
EtymologyThe generic name is composed of the Latin words salvos, meaning "sound or well preserved" and dura, meaning "tough or outer covering," probably in reference to the smooth, tough skin.
The species is named after James Duncan Graham (1799-1865), American engineer, astronomer and collector of biological specimens. 
References
  • Axtell, Ralph W. 1939. AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF THE BLACK GAP WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT AREA, BREWSTER COUNTY, TEXAS. Southwestern Naturalist 4 (2): 88-109
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp. - get paper here
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • CAMPOS-RODRÍGUEZ, José Ismael; Xhail FLORES-LEYVA ; María Graciela LORENZO-MÁRQUEZ ; Leonardo Martín TOLEDO-JIMÉNEZ 2017. NEW RECORDS AND DISTRIBUTION EXTENSIONS OF REPTILES (REPTILIA: SQUAMATA) FOR THE STATE OF ZACATECAS, MEXICO Acta Zoológica Mexicana (nueva serie) 33 (1) - get paper here
  • Christman, Bruce L.;Kilpatrick, Sandra L.;Painter, Charles W.;Stuart, James N. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Salvadora grahamiae. Herpetological Review 29 (1): 54-55 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger 1942. Notes on the young of three recently described snakes, with comments upon their relationships [Coluber constrictor priapus; Salvadora lineata; Natrix harteri]. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 6 (10): 193-200
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1879. Eleventh contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 18: 261-277. - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Desantis, D. L., V. Mata-Silva and J. D. Johnson 2016. Salvador grahamiae (Mountain Patch-nosed Snake) winter foraging. Herpetological Review 47(3): 483-484.
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2010. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Queretaro, Mexico. Tlalnepantla UNAM, 428 pp.
  • FLESCH, AARON D.; DON E. SWANN, DALE S. TURNER, AND BRIAN F. POWELL 2010. HERPETOFAUNA OF THE RINCON MOUNTAINS, ARIZONA. Southwestern Naturalist 55(2):240–253 - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hoser, R.T. 2012. A division of the patch-nosed snakes, genus Salvadora Baird and Girard, 1853 (Serpentes: Colubridae: Colubrinae). Australasian J. Herpetol. 14:6–8. - get paper here
  • Husak, Jerry F.;Wright, Jeff 1998. Geographic Distribution. Salvadora grahamiae lineata. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 116 - get paper here
  • Kaiser, H.; Crother, B.I.; Kelly, C.M.R.; Luiselli, L.; O’Shea, M.; Ota, H.; Passos, P.; Schleip, W.D. & Wüster, W. 2013. Best Practices: In the 21st Century, Taxonomic Decisions in Herpetology are Acceptable Only When Supported by a Body of Evidence and Published via Peer-Review. Herpetological Review 44 (1): 8-23
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xii + 300 pp.
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A., Geoffrey R. Smith 2015. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. Check List 11 (3): 1642 - get paper here
  • Love, Bill 2017. Reptilien und Amphibien besser fotografieren Terraria-Elaphe (3): 14-23 - get paper here
  • Martin, Plul S. 1958. A biogeography of reptiles and amphibians in the Gomez Farias Region, Tamaulipas, Mexico. Miscellaneous publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (101): 1-102 + 7 plates - get paper here
  • McVay, John David; Bryan Carstens 2013. Testing monophyly without well-supported gene trees: Evidence from multi-locus nuclear data conflicts with existing taxonomy in the snake tribe Thamnophiini. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 68, Issue 3, September 2013, Pages 425–431 - get paper here
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Schmidt,K.P. 1940. Notes on Texan snakes of the genus Salvadora. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool. Series 24 (12): 143-150 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1938. Notes on the snakes of the genus Salvadora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 25 (12): 229-237 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Taggart, Travis W.;Irwin, Kelly J.;Sweetman, Adam 1994. Salvadora grahamiae (mountain patchnose snake). USA: Texas. Herpetological Review 25 (2): 77 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1985. Snakes of Western Chihuahua. Great Basin Naturalist 45 (4): 615-676 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Terán-Juárez, Sergio A., Elí García Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Tamaulipas, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 43–113 - get paper here
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Trápaga 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Van Devender, Thomas R.;Lowe, Charles H. Lowe, Jr. 1977. Amphibians and reptiles of Yepomera, Chihuahua, Mexico. Journal of Herpetology 11 (1): 41-50 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Webb, R.G. 1984. Herpetogeography in the Mazatlán-Durango Region of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Vetrebrate Ecology and Systematics - A ribute to Henry S. Fitch; Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas, Lawrence, pp. 217-241
  • Werler, John E. & James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
 
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