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Scincus mitranus ANDERSON, 1871

IUCN Red List - Scincus mitranus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Arabian Sand Skink, Sand Fish, Eastern Skink 
SynonymScincus mitranus ANDERSON 1871: 115
Scincus arenarius MURRAY 1884: 353
Scincus muscatensis MURRAY 1886: 67
Scincus muscatensis — BOULENGER 1887: 408
Scincus mitranus — SMITH 1935: 344
Scincus arabicus SCHMIDT 1939
Scincus philbyi SCHMIDT 1941: 162
Scincus philbyi — HAAS 1957: 78
Scincus richmondi HAAS 1961
Scincus muscatensis — LEVITON & ANDERSON 1967: 179
Scincus mitranus — ARNOLD & LEVITON 1977: 224
Scincus mitranus — BISCHOFF & SCHMIDTLER 1981
Scincus mitranus mitranus AL-SADOON 1988
Scincus mitranus — GRIFFITH, NGO & MURPHY 2000
Scincus mitranus muscatensis — VAN DER KOOIJ 2001
Scincus mitranus — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Scincus mitranus — NASRABADI et al. 2017 
DistributionC/S Arabian Peninsula east of the Asir and Yemen highlands, and north to Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, Pakistan, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Iran, Saudi Arabia

Type locality: Arabia  
TypesHolotype: ZSI 5584
Paratype: MSNG 37638 [philbyi] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Head relatively small; external ear orifice very small but visible, usually situated well below level of line made by lower edges of upper labial scales and typically covered by two scales, the hind edges of which are usually serrated over the orifice (rarely covered by a single, less serrated scale). Eye with relatively small cornea and a rounded pupil. Rostral scale broadly borders frontonasal; frontoparietals in usually extensive contact (rarely fused or separated) ; parietals relatively small (usually less than twice the length of adjoining nuchals). Dorsal scales smooth, mid-dorsals subequal to mid-ventrals (rarely more than slightly larger or smaller). (25) 26 to 30 (31) scales around mid-body. Adults and young without bold dorsal pattern, either almost uniform or with fine dappled pattern of lighter and darker spots; dark bars or spots present on flanks of nearly all adults. Auditory meatus long with some fairly well-developed scales distally and a long cartilage in its lateral wall. Extrastapes an elongate plate. Premaxillary rostrum long. Otic capsule normal squamosal quite sharply flexed, its upper border often forming a small spur. Distal section of supratemporal process of parietal not constricted, terminating well above level of ventral tip of squamosal. (Arnold & Leviton 1977) 
CommentDistribution: Not in Pakistan fide KHAN 2002 (pers. comm.). See map in Burriel-Carranza et al. 2019 for map in UAE. For overall distribution see map in Seufer et al. 2022. 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Babu Rajendralala Mitra (1824-1891), an archeologist and anthropologist. Anderson explained that Mitra had obtained the skink holotype "from a Kashmir merchant, who stated that he brought the same from Arabia." 
  • Aloufi, A., Al Zayer, M., & Amr, Z. S. 2023. Reptiles and Amphibians along the Coastal Area of the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Ecologica Montenegrina, 68, 66-87 - get paper here
  • Aloufi, A., Amr, Z., & Baker, M. A. 2022. Reptiles from'Uruq Bani Ma'arid and Harat al Harrah protected areas in Saudi Arabia: Reptiles from two protected areas in Saudi Arabia. Herpetology Notes 15: 483-491
  • Alshammari, Ahmed M. and Adel A. Ibrahim 2015. Lizards and Snakes in the Historical Faid Protected Area (Faid Hema), Ha'il Region, Saudi Arabia. Herp. Cons. Biol. 10 (3) - get paper here
  • Anderson, J. 1871. Description of a new species of Scincus. Proc. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 1871: 115-116 - get paper here
  • Arnold E N 1980. The scientific results of the Oman flora and fauna survey 1977 (Dhofar). The reptiles and amphibians of Dhofar, southern Arabia. JOURNAL OF OMAN STUDIES SPECIAL REPORT (No. 2): 273-332 - get paper here
  • Arnold, Edwin Nicholas & Leviton, Alan E. 1977. A revision of the lizard genus Scincus (Reptilia: Scincidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) 31 (5): 187-248 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bischoff, W. & Schmidtler, J.F. 1981. Bemerkungen zur Herpetofauna der Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate, insbesondere zur Omaneidechse (Lacerta jayakari). Herpetofauna 3 (11): 12-16 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1887. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, Anelytropsidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. London: 575 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1887. A list of the reptiles and batrachians obtained near Muscat, Arabia, and presented to the British Museum by Surgeon-Major A.S.G. Jayakar. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 20: 407-408 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Brown, J.N.B. 1984. Skinks in the UAE. Bulletin of the Emirates Natural History Group 22: - get paper here
  • Burriel-Carranza B, Pedro Tarroso, Johannes Els, Andrew Gardner, Pritpal Soorae, Ahmed Ali Mohammed, Sai Ravi Krishna Tubati, Mohamed Mustafa Eltayeb, Junid Nazeer Shah, Héctor Tejero-Cicuéndez, Marc Simó-Riudalbas, Juan Manuel Pleguezuelos, Daniel F 2019. An integrative assessment of the diversity, phylogeny, distribution, and conservation of the terrestrial reptiles (Sauropsida, Squamata) of the United Arab Emirates. PLoS ONE 14(5): e0216273 - get paper here
  • Carranza S, Xipell M, Tarroso P, Gardner A, Arnold EN, Robinson MD, et al. 2018. Diversity, distribution and conservation of the terrestrial reptiles of Oman (Sauropsida, Squamata). PLoS One 13 (2): e0190389 - get paper here
  • Carranza, Salvador; Johannes Els; Bernat Burriel-Carranza 2021. A field guide to the reptiles of Oman. Madrid : Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 223 pp. [review in HR 53 (3): 531] - get paper here
  • Cogălniceanu, Dan; Aurora Castilla, Aitor Valdeon, Alberto Gosa, Noora Al Jaidah, Ali Alkuwary, Essam Saifelnasr, Paloma Mas, Renee Richer, Ahmad Amer Al Hemaidi 2014. A preliminary report on the distribution of lizards in Qatar. ZooKeys 373 (2014): 67-91<br />doi: 10.3897/zookeys.373.5994 - get paper here
  • Gardner, A.S. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Oman and the UAE. Edition Chimaira, 480 pp.
  • Gebhart, J. 2013. Oman, quer durch`s Weihrauchland - ein Reisetagebuch. L@CERTIDAE (Eidechsen Online) 2013 [8]: 142-159 - get paper here
  • Griffith, H., A. Ngo & R. W. Murphy 2000. A cladistic evaluation of the cosmopolitan genus Eumeces Wiegmann (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 7 (1): 1-16 - get paper here
  • Grossmann, W. 2010. Das Porträt/ Titelbild: Scincus mitranus Anderson. Sauria 32 (2): 1-2 - get paper here
  • GROSSMANN, W. & B.-M. ZWANZIG 2013. Zur Kenntnis der Habitatwahl von Östlichen Sandfischen Scincus mitranus muscatensis MURRAY, 1886 (Squamata: Scincidae). Sauria 35 (1): 3-8 - get paper here
  • Haas, Georg 1957. Some amphibians and reptiles from Arabia. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 29 (3): 47-86 - get paper here
  • Hornby, R. 1996. A checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the UAE. Tribulus: Bulletin of the Emirates Natural History Group 6(1): 9-13 - get paper here
  • Jongbloed, M. 2000. Field Guide to the reptiles and amphibians of the UAE - Wild about reptiles. Barkers Trident Communications, 116 pp.
  • Kamali, Kamran 2020. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Iran. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany ( 574 pp.
  • Leviton,A.E. & Anderson,S.C. 1967. Survey of the reptiles of the Sheikdom of Abu Dhabi, Arabian Peninsula. Part II. Systematic account of the collction of reptiles made in the Sheikdom of Abu Daby by John Gasperetti. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 35: 157-192 - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E.; Anderson,S.C.; Adler, K.; Minton,S.A. 1992. Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles. SSAR, Oxford, Ohio (Contr. to Herpetol. No. 8), 1-252
  • Murray, J. A. 1886. Description of an apparently new species of Scincus from Muscat. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) 17: 67-68 - get paper here
  • Murray, J.A. 1884. The Vertebrate Zoology of Sind. London (Richardso) & Bombay, 424 pp.
  • NASRABADI, REZA; NASRULLAH RASTEGAR-POUYANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI, AHMAD GHARZI 2017. A revised key to the lizards of Iran (Reptilia: Squamata: Lacertilia). Zootaxa 4227 (3): 431–443 - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Schmidt,K.P. 1939. Reptiles and amphibians from Southwestern Asia. Publ. Field Mus. nat. Hist., zool. Ser., 24: 49-92 - get paper here
  • Schmidt,K.P. 1941. Reptiles and amphibians from central Arabia. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Zool. Ser., 24: 161-165 - get paper here
  • Seufer, Hermann; Thomas Kowalski, Berd-Michael Zwanzig & Wolfgang Grossmann 2022. Ein bisher übersehener Fundort von Scincus conirostris Blanford, 1881 im Sultanat Oman. [A hitherto overlooked locality of Scincus conirostris Blanford, 1881 in the Sultanate of Oman] Sauria 44 (4): 43-48
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Riccardo Nincheri, Benedetto Lanza 2014. Catalogue of Arabian reptiles in the collections of the “La Specola” Museum, Florence. Scripta Herpetologica. Studies on Amphibians and Reptiles in honour of Benedetto Lanza: pp. 137-164 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • van der Kooij, Jeroen 2001. The herpetofauna of the Sultanate of Oman: Part 3: The true lizards, skinks and monitor lizards. Podarcis 2 (1): 15-26 - get paper here
  • Werner,F. 1896. Über eine Sammlung von Reptilien aus Persien, Mesopotamien und Arabien. Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 45: 13-22 [1895] - get paper here
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