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Scincus scincus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesScincus scincus conirostris BLANFORD 1881
Scincus scincus cucullatus WERNER 1914
Scincus scincus meccensis WIEGMANN 1837
Scincus scincus scincus (LINNAEUS 1758) 
Common NamesSandfish Skink 
SynonymLacerta stincus [sic] LINNAEUS 1758: 205 (in error?)
Scincus officinalis LAURENTI 1768
Lacerta scincus — SHAW & NODDER 1812: plate 1031
Scincus officinalis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 564
Scincus officinalis — GRAVENHORST 1851: 313
Scincus officinalis — BOULENGER 1891: 138
Scincus officinalis — HEMPRICH & EHRENBERG in TORNIER 1899
Scincus officinalis lineolata WERNER 1914: 343 (fide KLUGE 1984: 40)
Scincus officianalis — BAUER 2004 (in error)
Scincus scincus — GRANDISON 1956
Scincus officinalis — MEERMAN 1979
Scincus scincus — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 359
Scincus scincus — GRIFFITH, NGO & MURPHY 2000
Scincus scincus — ŠMÍD et al. 2014

Scincus scincus conirostris BLANFORD 1881
Scincus conirostris BLANFORD 1881
Scincus muscatensis WERNER 1895
Scincus conirostris — ANDERSON 1896: 49
Scincus conirostris — SCHMIDT 1939
Scincus gasperetti HAAS 1957
Scincus conirostris — BROWN 1984
Scincus scincus conirostris — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Scincus scincus conirostris — AL-SADOON et al. 2016

Scincus scincus cucullatus WERNER 1914
Scincus officinalis var. cucullata WERNER 1914
Scincus officinalis var. cuculiata — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994: 57 (in error)
Scincus scincus cucullatus — ARNOLD & LEVITON 1977: 212
Scincus scincus cucullatus — SCHLÜTER 2005
Scincus scincus cucullatus — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Scincus scincus cucullatus — TRAPE, CHIRIO & TRAPE 2012

Scincus scincus meccensis WIEGMANN 1837
Scincus meccensis WIEGMANN 1837
Scincus meccensis — TORNIER 1899
Scincus deserti HAAS 1957
Scincus scincus meccensis — ARNOLD & LEVITON 1977
Scincus scincus meccensis — MÜLLER 1996
Scincus scincus meccensis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Scincus scincus meccensis — AL-SHAMMARI 2012
Scincus scincus meccensis — SINDACO et al. 2014 
DistributionMorocco, Tunisia, Algeria, SE Libya, Egypt, Sinai, Israel, Jordan, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Western Sahara ?, Mauritania ?, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, C Sudan

cucullatus: N Algeria, Tunisia, Nw Libya, N Nigeria; Type locality: “Tunesien”

conirostris: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Oman

meccensis: W Saudi Arabia, Jordan, SE Syria

Type locality: “in montosis Lybiae, Aegypti, Arabiae petrae”. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: unlocated
Holotype: ZMB 1178 from “Arabia” [= along the shore near Jiddah or ... toward Makkah (fide Schätti & Günther 2001) [meccensis]
Holotype: CAS 84519 [conirostris]
Syntypes: UMMZ and NMW [cucullatus]
Holotype: NMW; Syntype: UMMZ [lineolata] 
CommentSubspecies: Scincus scincus albifasciatus BOULENGER 1890 and Scincus scincus laterimaculatus WERNER 1914 are now considered as valid species.

Distribution: JOHANN (1981) also mentions S. s. cucullatus from Algeria.

Type Species: Scincus stincus LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Scincus LAURENTI 1768. However, GARSAULT 1764 described Scincus earlier and thus DUBOIS & BOUR (2010) designated Scincus scincus var. laterimaculatus Werner, 1914 (onymotope: western Algeria), as nucleospecies of Scincus Garsault, 1764.

Diagnosis of the genus Scincus (fide GRIFFITH et al. 2000): Heavy limbs with robust pes, expanded lamellae on digits and phalanges, short-tailed. Conical head, convex in lateral view, parietal bone with clear lateral indentations and supratemporal fontanelle open. Sexual dimorphism in head proportions not distinct. Spatulate rostrum supported by extended fused premaxillae. Strong ventrolateral keels running from upper labial scales to sacral region (convergent with other genera of sand-swimming lizards). Scales thick, separated by deep sutures. Two loreals, second fused with first of two presuboculars. Postnasal present. Palpebral and superciliary scales separated by groove. Usually four or five pairs of nuchal scales. Broadened mid-dorsal scales, mid-dorsal rows not fused. Medial preanal scales enlarged, lateral edges coincide with ventrolateral keels. Small, ventrally directed ear opening covered by several overlapping lobules. Color pattern variable, but generally consisting of transverse stripes or bars on pale background. From Saharan Africa, eastward to southern Iran.

Distribution not corrected after removal of albifasciatus and laterimaculatus. 
References
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