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Scincus scincus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesScincus scincus cucullatus WERNER 1914
Scincus scincus meccensis WIEGMANN 1837
Scincus scincus scincus (LINNAEUS 1758) 
Common NamesE: Sandfish Skink
G: Apothekerskink 
SynonymLacerta stincus [sic] LINNAEUS 1758: 205 (in error?)
Scincus officinalis LAURENTI 1768
Stincus officinalis — MEYER 1795: 30
Lacerta scincus — SHAW & NODDER 1812: plate 1031
Scincus officinalis — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 564
Scincus officinalis — GRAVENHORST 1851: 313
Scincus officinalis — BOULENGER 1891: 138
Scincus officinalis — HEMPRICH & EHRENBERG in TORNIER 1899
Scincus officinalis lineolata WERNER 1914: 343 (fide KLUGE 1984: 40)
Scincus scincus — ARNOLD & LEVITON 1977
Scincus officianalis — BAUER 2004 (in error)
Scincus scincus — GRANDISON 1956
Scincus officinalis — BONS 1959

Scincus officinalis — MEERMAN 1979
Scincus scincus — SCHLEICH, KÄSTLE & KABISCH 1996: 359
Scincus scincus — GRIFFITH, NGO & MURPHY 2000
Scincus scincus — ŠMÍD et al. 2014
Scincus scincus — BAR et al. 2021

Scincus scincus cucullatus WERNER 1914
Scincus officinalis var. cucullata WERNER 1914
Scincus officinalis var. cuculiata — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994: 57 (in error)
Scincus scincus cucullatus — ARNOLD & LEVITON 1977: 212
Scincus scincus cucullatus — SCHLÜTER 2005
Scincus scincus cucullatus — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Scincus scincus cucullatus — TRAPE, CHIRIO & TRAPE 2012

Scincus scincus meccensis WIEGMANN 1837
Scincus meccensis WIEGMANN 1837
Scincus meccensis — TORNIER 1899
Scincus deserti HAAS 1957
Scincus scincus meccensis — ARNOLD & LEVITON 1977
Scincus scincus meccensis — SCHÄTTI & GASPERETTI 1994
Scincus scincus meccensis — MÜLLER 1996
Scincus scincus meccensis — MODRY et al. 2004
Scincus scincus meccensis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Scincus scincus meccensis — AL-SHAMMARI 2012
Scincus scincus meccensis — SINDACO et al. 2014
Scincus scincus meccensis — DISI et al. 2014 
DistributionTunisia, Algeria, SE Libya, Egypt, Sinai, Israel, Jordan, Yemen, , Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Western Sahara ?, Mauritania ?, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, C Sudan (Jumhūriyyat)

cucullatus: N Algeria, Tunisia, Nw Libya, N Nigeria; Type locality: “Tunesien”

meccensis: W Saudi Arabia, Jordan, SE Syria

Type locality: “in montosis Lybiae, Aegypti, Arabiae petrae”.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesSyntype: NRM 141a (as holotype, by Arnold & Leviton, 1977), presented Envoy Baron Brinkman, 1.ix.1838 (fide Anderson, 1900). While this specimen has been previously identified as the holotype, Linnaeus' description is also based on a number of literature records (Gronovius, 1756; Seba, 1735; Bessler & Bessler, 1716; Olearius, 1674; Ray, 1693; Hasselquist, 1751, 1757), and the specimens that are the basis of those literature records are also syntypes. Only NRM 141a has so far been identified as a type specimen of this species.
Holotype: ZMB 1178 from “Arabia” [= along the shore near Jiddah or ... toward Makkah (fide Schätti & Günther 2001) [meccensis]
Holotype: CAS 84519 [conirostris]
Syntypes: NMW 10386:3, Tripoli, collected Werner & Klaptocz, 1906; UMMZ 67158 (2 specimens), Tunisia, purchased F. Werner [cucullatus]
Syntypes: UMMZ 67261, NMW [lineolata] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Heavy limbs with robust pes, expanded lamellae on digits and phalanges, short-tailed. Conical head, convex in lateral view, parietal bone with clear lateral indentations and supratemporal fontanelle open. Sexual dimorphism in head proportions not distinct. Spatulate rostrum supported by extended fused premaxillae. Strong ventrolateral keels running from upper labial scales to sacral region (convergent with other genera of sand-swimming lizards). Scales thick, separated by deep sutures. Two loreals, second fused with first of two presuboculars. Postnasal present. Palpebral and superciliary scales separated by groove. Usually four or five pairs of nuchal scales. Broadened mid-dorsal scales, mid-dorsal rows not fused. Medial preanal scales enlarged, lateral edges coincide with ventrolateral keels. Small, ventrally directed ear opening covered by several overlapping lobules. Color pattern variable, but generally consisting of transverse stripes or bars on pale background. From Saharan Africa, eastward to southern Iran (fide GRIFFITH et al. 2000). 
CommentSubspecies: Scincus scincus albifasciatus BOULENGER 1890, S. c. laterimaculatus WERNER 1914, and S. s. conirostris BLANFORD 1881 are now considered as valid species.

Distribution: JOHANN (1981) also mentions S. s. cucullatus from Algeria. See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. See map in Burriel-Carranza et al. 2019 for map in UAE. Not in Morocco (Martínez et al. 2019, and pers. comm. 18 Jan 2021). See Bar et al. 2021 for a map.

Type Species: Scincus stincus LINNAEUS 1758 is the type species of the genus Scincus LAURENTI 1768. However, GARSAULT 1764 described Scincus earlier and thus DUBOIS & BOUR (2010) designated Scincus scincus var. laterimaculatus Werner, 1914 (onymotope: western Algeria), as nucleospecies of Scincus Garsault, 1764. Scincus is also the type genus of the family Scincidae Oppel 1811, the subfamily Scincinae Oppel 1811 (see Hedges 2014 and Shea 2021 for details).

Distribution not corrected after removal of albifasciatus and laterimaculatus. 
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