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Siagonodon septemstriatus (SCHNEIDER, 1801)

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Higher TaxaLeptotyphlopidae, Epictinae, Epictini, Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSeven-striped Blind Snake 
SynonymAnguis septem-striatus SCHNEIDER 1801: 341
Leptotyphlops tatacua BRICENO-ROSSI 1934
Typhlops senptemstriatus WAGLER 1830: 196 (lapsus)
Catodon septem-striatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 319
Stenostoma (Catodon) septemstriatum — JAN 1860
Siagonodon septemstriatus — PETERS 1881
Glauconia septemstriata — BOULENGER 1893: 71
Leptotyphlops septemstriatus — MERTENS 1925: 78
Leptotyphlops tatacua BRICENO-ROSSI 1934
Leptotyphlops septemstriata — BEEBE 1946: 13
Leptotyphlops septemlineata HOFFSTETTER & GASC 1969 (lapsus)
Leptotyphlops septemstriatus — STARACE 1998: 79
Leptotyphlops septemstriatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 42
Leptotyphlops septemstriatus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Siagonodon septemstriatus — ADALSTEINSSON, BRANCH, TRAPE, VITT & HEDGES 2009
Siagonodon septemstriatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 666 
DistributionN Brazil (Para, Amazonas, Roraïma), Guyana, French Guiana, SE Venezuela, Bolivia

Type locality: unknown (fide KORNACKER 1999).  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: RMNH. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Species of Siagonodon have 14 midbody scale rows, 10–14 midtail scale rows, 206–289 middorsal scale rows, 8–20 subcaudals, two supralabials, small or moderate or large anterior supralabials, 202–300 mm maximum adult total length, a body shape of 39–130 (total length/width), a relative tail length of 2.1–6.6%, a tail shape of 1.3–2.6, striped pattern, multiple dorsal colors, and white venter (Table 2). They also lack a supraocular scale. The absence of a supraocular scale distinguishes this genus from the other genus in the subtribe, Epictia (except E. nasalis). Other traits distinguishing the two genera show overlap, but species of Siagonodon tend to have fewer midtail scale rows and a white venter (Table 2). Only one species of this genus was sequenced (from ADALSTEINSSON et al. 2009).

Diagnosis (genus). Members of the genus Siagonodon can be distin- guished from other genera of Leptotyphlopidae by unique combination of the following characters: supralabial scales two (1þ1); infralabial scales three or four; rostral scale and terminal spine uniformly colored; rostral scale with enlarged base; terminal spine reduced or absent; snout straight in lateral view; belly unpigmented; tail relatively shorter compared to species from other genera with the same total length (TL/TAL: 2.2–4.7); dorsal scales 163–299; ventral scales 160–286; subcaudal scales 9–16; midtail scales 10–14 [Francisco et al. 2018].

Comparisons with other Neotropical genera. Members of the genus Siagonodon differ from those of Rena and Trilepida (character states in parentheses) by having a straight snout in lateral view (vs. round or truncate snout; Fig. 2), enlarged rostral base (vs. narrow rostral base; Fig. 3), and caudal spine conspicuously reduced or absent (vs. caudal spine enlarged; Fig. 4). Species of Siagonodon are distinguished from those of Epictia (character states in parentheses) by having rostral scale and caudal spine with uniform color (vs. several species with yellow or white blotches at the end of the tail, including caudal spine), straight snout in lateral view (vs. rounded snout), unpigmented ventral surface of body (vs. venter with stripes or blotches, usually black), rostral scales in adults of Siagonodon ranging from 36–56% (47,164; n = 50; CL: 45.9– 48.2) of total head width (vs. 14.9–41.6% [2967.16; n = 49; CL: 26.9–31]), constituting a significant statistical difference (U = 17; P , 0.01); ratio TL/TAL in adults of Siagonodon ranging from 2.2 to 4.7 (3.760.53, n = 50; CL: 3.5–3.8; vs. 3.8 to 7.2 (5.860.85, n = 49; CL: 5.5–6), also representing a significant statistical difference (U = 74.5; P , 0.01) [Francisco et al. 2018].

See Francisco et al. 2018: Table 1 for meristic data in the genus. 
CommentType species: Anguis septem-striatus SCHNEIDER 1801 is the type species of the genus Siagonodon PETERS 1881.

Synonymy: Mertens (1925) placed the genus Siagonodon in the synonymy of Leptotyphlops Fitzinger (1843) 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): The generic name is masculine and derived from the Greek nouns siagon (jaw) and odon (tooth), probably in allusion to the presence of teeth only on the lower jaw. 
References
  • Adalsteinsson, S.A.; Branch, W.R.; Trapé, S.; Vitt, L.J. & Hedges, S.B. 2009. Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae (Reptilia, Squamata). Zootaxa 2244: 1-50 - get paper here
  • Beebe, William 1946. Field notes on the snakes of Kartabo, British Guiana, and Caripito, Venezuela. Zoologica 31: 11-52 - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotrop. 12(3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Briceno-Rossi, A.L. 1934. El problema del ofidismo en Venezuela. Bol. Min. Salubr. Agric. Cria, Venezuela, Caracas, 1: 1079-1177
  • Cole, Charles J.; Carol R. Townsend, Robert P. Reynolds, Ross D. MacCulloch, and Amy Lathrop 2013. Amphibians and reptiles of Guyana, South America: illustrated keys, annotated species accounts, and a biogeographic synopsis. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 125 (4): 317-578; plates: 580-620 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1844. Erpetologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol.6. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 609 pp. - get paper here
  • Francisco, Bárbara C. S.; Roberta R. Pinto, and Daniel S. Fernandes 2018. Taxonomic Notes on the Genus Siagonodon Peters, 1881, with a Report on Morphological Variation in Siagonodon cupinensis (Bailey and Carvalho, 1946) (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae). Copeia 106 (2): 321-328 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Hoffstetter & GASC 1969. Biol. Rept., 1 (Chapt. 5): 290.
  • Hoogmoed, M.S. 1982. Snakes of the Guianan Region. Mem. Inst. Butantan 46: 219-254. - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1860. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 1. Livraison. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Lancini,A.R. & Kornacker,P.M. 1989. Die Schlangen von Venezuela. Armitano Editores C.A., Caracas, 1-381
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mertens, Robert 1925. Der Fundort von Leptotyphlops septemstriatus Schneider. Senckenbergiana 7 (3/4): 78-79
  • Nascimento F Paiva do; de Avila-Pires T C Sauer; da Cunha O Rodrigues 1987. Os repteis da area de Carajas, Para, Brasil (Squamata). 2. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi NOVA SERIE ZOOLOGIA 3(1) 1987: 33-65
  • Natera-Mumaw, Marco; Luis Felipe Esqueda-González & Manuel Castelaín-Fernández 2015. Atlas Serpientes de Venezuela Santiago de Chile, Dimacofi Negocios Avanzados S.A., 456 pp. - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Peters, WILHELM C. H. 1881. Einige herpetologische Mittheilungen. 1. Uebersicht der zu den Familien der Typhlopes und Stenostomi gehörigen Gattungen oder Untergattungen. 2. Ueber eine neue Art von Tachydromus aus dem Amurlande. 3. Ueber die von Herrn Dr. finsch aus Polynesien g Sitzungs-Ber. Gesellsch.Naturforsch. Freunde Berlin, 1881 (4): 69-72.
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Schneider, JOHANN GOTTLOB 1801. Historiae Amphibiorum naturalis et literariae. Fasciculus secundus continens Crocodilos, Scincos, Chamaesauras, Boas. Pseudoboas, Elapes, Angues. Amphisbaenas et Caecilias. Frommanni, Jena. 374 pp. - get paper here
  • Starace, Fausto 1998. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. IBIS Rouge Editions, Guadeloupe, Guyane, 450 pp.
  • Starace, Fausto 2013. Guide des Serpents et Amphisbènes de Guyane. Ibis Rouge Editions, Matoury, Guyane, ISBN 978-2-84450-407-4 - get paper here
  • Wagler, Jean G. 1830. Natürliches System der Amphibien, mit vorangehender Classification der Säugetiere und Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Zoologie. 1.0. Cotta, München, Stuttgart, and Tübingen, 354 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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