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Sibon lamari SOLORZANO, 2001

IUCN Red List - Sibon lamari - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
SynonymSibon lamari SOLORZANO 2001
Sibon sp. — SAVAGE 2002: plate 395
Sibon lamari — MCCRANIE 2006
Sibon lamari — WALLACH et al. 2014: 667 
DistributionCosta Rica, Panama

Type locality: “Guayacán de Siquirres, al noreste de la provincia de Limón (83° 32’ 30’’ N y 10° 02’ 10’’NE)”  
TypesHolotype: UCR 13983, macho adulto, Museo de Zoología, Universidad de Costa Rica 
DiagnosisDescription: Scutellation: There are 7/8 supralabials, 10/10 infralabials, 15 rows of smooth dorsal scales without reduction, 0 preoculars, 2 postoculars, and 1 + 3 temporals. There are 3 pairs of geneial shields (1 long, 2 small), the first two which border the mental groove; 2 postmentals; the fourth and fifth supralabials border the orbit (also the sixth on one side); 168 ventrals, anal entire, and 112 divided subcaudals. The hemipenes are small, simple, unicapitate, with bifurcate sulcus spermaticus; the extremity is clearly bilobed but not divided; the apical third (asurcate surface) to the halfway point (surcate surface) covered with calyculate spines; the central sector is covered with spines of moderate size distally, and long hooks anteriorly; two or three long basal hooks, the remaining anterior portion of the basal sector is smooth. It is important to note that a significant degree of resemblance exists in the general hemipenial morphology of the species of the genus Sibon.

Coloration: The dorsum of head is profusely pigmented with green, white (or pale yellow), red, and black spots, irregularly dispersed and descending laterally to the nasal, loreal, postocular, and temporal scales. The posterior parietal region (approximately 5 dorsal scales in length) is more intensely pigmented with red, laterally reaching the postemporal region. The supralabial scales are pale yellow in color, with half or one third black in color. However the last supralabial is almost completely red (one side) and with the posterior one third red (other side). The mental scale and first three infralabials are completely black, while the remaining infralabials are pale yellow in color with black pigment irregularly present. A series of consecutive red spots after the last supralabials forms a continual posterior line that is diffusely joined with the red tone of the lateral postparietal borders. Dorsally there is a series of 29 to 33 alternate, reddish, irregular bands over a green ground color, the scales of which are profusely speckled with small dots, spots, or dark-or-pale (white or pale yellow) irregular lines that at times cover up to half of each scale. The reddish bands are bordered on the outer edges by an irregular black tone, at times mixed with white or pale yellow spots that also may border the outer edge of the dark pigment. The venter is pale yellow medially and mostly white in the lateral areas, and the red bands encroach on the venter, forming irregular blotches, alternate or disjunct and with dark borders that in some cases join to form a continuous dark stripe. The dorsal scales are smooth and lacking apical pits, as is characteristic for the genus, the vertebral scale row is slightly enlarged. The iris is red, being darker medially, and the pupil is dark and vertically elliptic. The tongue is pale reddish brown on the posterior portion, dark brown on the stem, and nearly translucent on the forks. 
CommentS. lamari is not too well diagnosed morphologically. Lotzkat (2014: 698-701) provided a list of sources where (alledged) S. lamari are pictured (e.g. Savage 2002: plate 395; Solórzano 2002: Figs. 1–2; Solórzano 2004: Figs. 163, 165; McConnell 2014: Figs. 342–343).

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after William Wylly Lamar (b. 1950) is Adjunct Professor of Biology at the University of Texas, Tyler. 
  • Bartuano, Angel Sosa and Joelbin De La Cruz. 2014. Geographical Distribution: Sibon lamari (Costa Rican snaileater). Herpetological Review 45 (4): 665 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Campos-Villalobos, Jorge; Gerald Pereira-Castillo, Víctor Serrano-Hernández 2020. New records of the Costa Rican Snaileater, Sibon lamari Solorzano 2001 (Squamata: Dipsadidae), from Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 27 (3): 434-435 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Jaramillo A., C.A., R. Ibáñez D., F.E. Jaramillo A. & F.A. Solís 2008. Geographic distribution: Sibon lamari. Herpetological Review 39 (3): 373–374 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther, Sebastian Lotzkat and Andreas Hertz. 2010. A new species of Sibon (Squamata: Colubridae) from western Panama. Herpetologica 66 (1): 80-85 - get paper here
  • Lotzkat, S. 2014. Diversity, taxonomy, and biogeography of the reptiles inhabiting the highlands of the Cordillera Central (Serranía de Talamanca and Serranía de Tabasará) in western Panama. PhD thesis, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, 930 pp. - get paper here
  • Lotzkat, S.; A. Hertz; G. Köhler. 2012. A new species of Sibon (Squamata: Colubroidea: Dipsadidae) from the Cordillera Central of western Panama, with comments on other species of the genus in the area. Zootaxa 3485: 26–40 - get paper here
  • McCranie, J.R. 2007. A second new species of Sibon (Squamata: Colubridae) from La Mosquitia, Northeastern Honduras. Herpetologica 63 (2): 213-218 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2006. New species of Sibon (Squamata: Colubridae) from Northeastern Honduras. Journal of Herpetology 40 (1): 16-21 - get paper here
  • ROVITO, SEAN M.; THEODORE J. PAPENFUSS 2012. A new species of Sibon (Squamata: Colubridae) from the mountains of eastern Guatemala. Zootaxa 3266: 62–68 - get paper here
  • Solorzano, A. 2001. Una nueva especie de serpiente del genero Sibon (Serpentes: Colubridae) de la vertiente del Caribe de Costa Rica. Revista de Biologia Tropical 49(3-4): 1111-1120 - get paper here
  • Solorzano, A. 2004. Serpientes de Costa Rica - Snakes of Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica, 792 pp.
  • VERA-PÉREZ, LUIS ENRIQUE 2019. A new species of Sibon Fitzinger, 1826 (Squamata: Colubridae) from Southwestern Colombia. Zootaxa 4701 (5): 443–453 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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