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Sistrurus catenatus (RAFINESQUE, 1818)

IUCN Red List - Sistrurus catenatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesSistrurus catenatus catenatus (RAFINESQUE 1818)
Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus (SAY 1823) 
Common NamesE: Massasauga
catenatus: Eastern Massasauga
edwardsi: Desert Massasauga
tergeminus: Western Massasauga, Prairie Massasauga
G: Massasauga, Ketten-Klapperschlange
G: Wüsten-Massasauga [edwardsi] 
SynonymCrotalinus catenatus RAFINESQUE 1818
Sistrurus catenatus — STEBBINS 1985: 225
Sistrurus catenatus — LINER 1994
Sistrurus catenatus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 325
Sistrurus catenatus — HOSER 2009
Sistrurus catenatus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Sistrurus catenatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 679

Sistrurus catenatus catenatus (RAFINESQUE 1818)
Crotalinus catenatus RAFINESQUE 1818
Crotalus messasaugus KIRTLAND 1838
Sistrurus catenatus — GARMAN 1883
Sistrurus catenatus catenatus — COPE 1900
Sistrurus catenatus catenatus — BURT 1935
Sistrurus catenatus catenatus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 231
Sistrurus catenatus catenatus — CROTHER 2000
Sistrurus catenatus catenatus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 505
Sistrurus catenatus — KUBATKO et al. 2011
Sistrurus catenatus catenatus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Sistrurus messasaugus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 680

Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii (BAIRD & GIRARD 1853)
Crotalophorus Edwardsii BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 15
Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii — GLOYD 1955
Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii — STEBBINS 1985: 226
Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii — WELCH 1994: 109
Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii — CROTHER 2000
Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 510
Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii — CROTHER et al. 2012
Sistrurus tergeminus edwardsii — ICZN 2013

Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus (SAY 1823)
Crotalus tergeminus SAY 1823
Crotalophorus tergeminus — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Crotalus tergeminus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1479
Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus — KLAUBER 1936
Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 232
Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus — CROTHER 2000
Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 507
Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Sistrurus tergeminus tergeminus — ICZN 2013
Sistrurus tergeminus — PATTEN et al. 2016
Sistrurus tergeminus — SOVIC et al. 2016 
DistributionSE Canada (Ontario),
USA (SE Arizona, New Mexico, SE Colorado, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, SE Nebraska, N Missouri, S/E Iowa, W Pennsylvania, Illinois, Indiana, S Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, New York),
Mexico (N Chihuahua, Nuevo León, N Tamaulipas, Coahuila)

catenatus: USA (W New York to Nabraska and Kansas); Type locality: “the prairies of the Upper Missouri”. Restricted to “the floodplain of the Missouri River, between the mouth of the Platte River and Nebraska City, Nebraska”. This is considerably further downstream than the previous (unexplained) restriction of the type locality to ‘‘Gross, Boyd County, Nebraska’’ (Smith and Taylor, 1950: 358).

edwardsi: USA (W Texas, New Mexico, SE Arizona), N Mexico;Type locality: "Tamaulipas ... S. Bank of Rio Grande ... Sonora."

tergeminus: USA (Texas, Oklahoma); Type locality: "between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains." Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesNeotype: USNM 526, designated by ICZN OPINION 2328.
Type: lost (fide HOLYCROSS et al. 2008)
Syntypes (2): none designated [tergeminus]
Syntypes: USNM 506 (Sonora), USNM 507 (Tamaulipas), USNM 508 (Texas [south bank of Rio Grande]), and USNM 509 (Mexico [presumably Tamaulipas]); Lectotype: USNM 509, according to designation by Yarrow (1882:78). Minton (1983b:332.2) listed USNM 507 as the "holotype." [edwardsi] 

The type locality of S. catenatus places it within the range of S. c. tergeminus Say, 1823. Thus, the name S. c. catenatus incontrovertibly applies to the form currently recognized as S. c. tergeminus, which in turn renders the latter as a subjective junior synonym of the former, leaving the eastern form with an unfamiliar name (Crotalus messasaugus Kirtland, 1838). To conserve prevailing usage, HOLYCROSS et al. (2008) are preparing an appeal to the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) to allow a neotype of Sistrurus catenatus to be designated from the type locality of Crotalus massassaugus (from HOLYCROSS et al. 2008). The ICZN has ruled that tergeminus and catenatus be conserved.

Synonymy: Kubatko et al. 2011 suggested to elevate S. c. catenatus to full species status with another clade formed by edwardsii and tergeminus. However, they do not explicitly propose a name for this clade although tergeminus would have priority.

Illustration: The animal shown in Roggenkamp (2013) is not a Sistrurus catenatus edwardsi but Sistrurus catenatus tergeminus. Juvenile tergeminus have a yellow tail tip. See Niehoff 2013, Terraria Elaphe 2014: (1): 12.

Map: see Kubatko et al. 2011: 395 
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