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Sistrurus miliarius LINNAEUS, 1766

IUCN Red List - Sistrurus miliarius - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesSistrurus miliarius barbouri GLOYD 1935
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius (LINNAEUS 1766)
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri GLOYD 1935 
Common NamesE: Pigmy Rattlesnake
barbouri: Dusky Pigmy Rattlesnake
miliarius: Carolina Pigmy Rattlesnake
streckeri: Western Pigmy Rattlesnake
G: Zwergklapperschlange 
SynonymSistrurus miliarius (LINNAEUS 1766: 372)
Crotalus miliarius LINNAEUS in GMELIN 1788: 1080
Crotalophorus miliarius — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 11
Crotalus miliarius — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1477
Candisona [sic] miliaria — COUES & YARROW 1878: 26
Sistrurus miliarius — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 326
Sistrurus miliaris [sic] — BÖHME 2005
Sistrurus miliarius — HOSER 2009
Sistrurus miliarius — CROTHER et al. 2012
Sistrurus miliarius — WALLACH et al. 2014: 680

Sistrurus miliarius miliarius (LINNAEUS 1766)
Crotalus miliarius LINNAEUS 1766
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — GLOYD 1935
Sistrurus miliarius — GARMAN 1884
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 232
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — WELCH 1994: 109
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — CROTHER 2000
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 499
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — CROTHER et al. 2012

Sistrurus miliarius barbouri GLOYD 1935
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 232
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — WELCH 1994: 109
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — CROTHER 2000
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 501
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — CROTHER et al. 2012
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — GOMARD 2014
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — LILLYWHITE 2014: 105

Sistrurus miliarius streckeri GLOYD 1935
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 233
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri — WELCH 1994: 109
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri — CROTHER 2000
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 503
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (E Texas, E Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, S Missouri, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, W Tennessee)

miliarius: USA (North Carolina to Georgia and Alabama); Type locality: "Carolina." Schmidt, 1953: 226, proposed a restriction to "Charleston, South Carolina."

barbouri: USA (South Carolina to Florida and SE Mississippi)

streckeri: USA (Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, to SW Tennessee and E Texas); Type locality: Arkansas, Lawrence, nr. Imboden. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesTypes: Received by Linnaeus from Alexander Garden, deposition unknown (see Klauber 1948: 4-6]). Presumed lost, according by Palmer, 1978: 220.1.
Holotype: UMMZ [streckeri] 
CommentVenomous!

Colour image of barbouri in SCHWEIGER 1995.

Genome: The Sistrurus miliarius genome has been sequenced by Vicoso et al. (2013).

Map: see Kubatko et al. 2011: 395

Type species: Crotalus miliarius LINNAEUS 1766: 372 is the type species of the genus Sistrurus GARMAN 1884.

Phylogenetics: Blair & Sánchez-Ramírez 2016 published a detailed molecular analysis of rattlesnakes. 
References
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  • Blair, Christopher & Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez 2016. Diversity-dependent cladogenesis throughout western Mexico: Evolutionary biogeography of rattlesnakes (Viperidae: Crotalinae: Crotalus and Sistrurus). Molecular Phylogenetics 3/11/2016and Evolution 97: 145–154 - get paper here
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