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Sistrurus miliarius LINNAEUS, 1766

IUCN Red List - Sistrurus miliarius - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesSistrurus miliarius barbouri GLOYD 1935
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius (LINNAEUS 1766)
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri GLOYD 1935 
Common NamesE: Pigmy Rattlesnake
barbouri: Dusky Pigmy Rattlesnake
miliarius: Carolina Pigmy Rattlesnake
streckeri: Western Pigmy Rattlesnake
G: Zwergklapperschlange 
SynonymSistrurus miliarius (LINNAEUS 1766: 372)
Crotalus miliarius LINNAEUS in GMELIN 1788: 1080
Crotalophorus miliarius — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 11
Crotalus miliarius — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1477
Candisona [sic] miliaria — COUES & YARROW 1878: 26
Sistrurus miliarius — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 326
Sistrurus miliaris [sic] — BÖHME 2005
Sistrurus miliarius — HOSER 2009
Sistrurus miliarius — CROTHER et al. 2012

Sistrurus miliarius miliarius (LINNAEUS 1766)
Crotalus miliarius LINNAEUS 1766
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — GLOYD 1935
Sistrurus miliarius — GARMAN 1883
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 232
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — WELCH 1994: 109
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — CROTHER 2000
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 499
Sistrurus miliarius miliarius — CROTHER et al. 2012

Sistrurus miliarius barbouri GLOYD 1935
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 232
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — WELCH 1994: 109
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — CROTHER 2000
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 501
Sistrurus miliarius barbouri — CROTHER et al. 2012

Sistrurus miliarius streckeri GLOYD 1935
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 233
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri — WELCH 1994: 109
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri — CROTHER 2000
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 503
Sistrurus miliarius streckeri — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (E Texas, E Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas, S Missouri, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, W Tennessee)

miliarius: USA (North Carolina to Georgia and Alabama); Type locality: "Carolina." Schmidt, 1953: 226, proposed a restriction to "Charleston, South Carolina."

barbouri: USA (South Carolina to Florida and SE Mississippi)

streckeri: USA (Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, to SW Tennessee and E Texas); Type locality: ARkansas, Lawrence, nr. Imboden. Holotype: UMMZ. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesTypes: Received by Linnaeus from Alexander Garden, deposition unknown (see Klauber 1948: 4-6]). Presumed lost, according by Palmer, 1978: 220.1. 
CommentVenomous! Colour image of barbouri in SCHWEIGER 1995.

Genome: The Sistrurus miliarius genome has been sequenced by Vicoso et al. (2013). 
References
  • Allen, Morrow J. 1932. A survey of the Amphibians and reptiles of Harrison County, Mississippi American Museum Novitates (542): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Baird, S. F. and C. Girard. 1853. Catalogue of North American Reptiles in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Part 1.-Serpents. Smithsonian Inst., Washington, xvi + 172 pp.
  • Beaman, K.R. & Hayes, W.K. 2008. Rattlesnakes: Research Trends and Annotated Checklist. In: Hayes et al. (eds), The biology of rattlesnakes. Loma Linda University Press, pp. 5-16
  • Bevelander, G.; Smith, T.L. & Kardong, K.V. 2006. Microhabitat and prey odor selection in the foraging Pigmy Rattlesnake. Herpetologica 62 (1): 47-55 - get paper here
  • Bishop, Lianne A.;Farrell, Terence M.;May, Peter G. 1996. Sexual dimorphism in a Florida population of the rattlesnake Sistrurus miliarius Herpetologica 52 (3): 360-364 - get paper here
  • Böhme, W. 2005. Der “Savannah River Ecology Site” und seine herpetologischen Highlights. Herpetofauna 25 (142): 13-21 - get paper here
  • Braswell, A.L.; Palmer, W.M. & Beane, J.C. 2003. Venomous Snakes of North Carolina. North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, 31 pp.
  • Clark, Donald R., Jr. 1963. Variation and sexual dimorphism in a brood of the western pigmy rattlesnake (Sistrurus). Copeia 1963 (1): 157-159 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Coues, E. & Yarrow, H.C. 1878. Notes on the natural history of Fort Macon, N.C., and vicinity. (No.4). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 1878: 21-28 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Duméril, A. M. C., BIBRON, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Enge, Kevin M. 2009. Venomous and non-venomous snakes of Florida. Publication of the Florida Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission. 16 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Farrell, Terence M.; Peter G. May, and Paul T. Andreadis 2011. Experimental Manipulation of Tail Color Does Not Affect Foraging Success in a Caudal Luring Rattlesnake Journal of Herpetology 45 (3): 291-293. - get paper here
  • Gloyd, Howard K. 1935. The subspecies of Sistrurus miliarius Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (322): 1-7
  • Hoser, R. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 3: 1-21 - get paper here
  • Irwin, Kelly J. 2004. Arkansas Snake Guide. Arkansas Game & Fish Commission, Little Rock, 50 pp.
  • Klauber, Lawrence M. 1948. Some misapplications of the Linnaean names applied to American snakes. Copeia 1948 (1): 1-14 - get paper here
  • Linné, C. von [= Linnaeus, C.] 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm, Holmiae. 1-532 pp. - get paper here
  • Lönnberg, Einar 1894. Notes on reptiles and batrachians collected in Florida in 1892 and 1893 Proc. US Natl. Mus. 17 (1003): 317-339 - get paper here
  • Love, B. 2010. Verquerer Artenschutz. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (85): 14-15 - get paper here
  • Luef, H. 2008. North Carolinas südliche Küstenebene - Ein Paradies für Reptilienfreunde. Reptilia (Münster) 13 (70): 38-49 - get paper here
  • May, Peter G. and Terence M. Farrell 2012. Growth Patterns of Dusky Pygmy Rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius barbouri) from Central Florida Herpetological Monographs 26 (1): 58-79. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid,R.W.; Campbell,J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mitchell, J. C. & Reay, K.K. 1999. Atlas of amphibians and reptiles in Virginia. Specialty Publication 1, VA Dept of Game and Fisheries, 122 pp. - get paper here
  • Palmer W M 1978. Sistrurus miliarius (Linnaeus). Pygmy rattlesnake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles No. 220: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Palmer, W.M. & Braswell, A.L. 1995. Reptiles of North Carolina. Univ. North Carolina Press
  • Palmer, William M. 1971. Distribution and variation of the Carolina pigmy rattlesnake, Sistrurus miliarius miliarius Linnaeus, in North Carolina Journal of Herpetology 5 (1-2): 39-44 - get paper here
  • Palmer, William M.;Williamson, Gary M. 1971. Observations on the natural history of the Carolina pigmy rattlesnake, Sistrurus miliarius linnaeus The Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 87 (1): 20-25
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Rabatsky, A. M. and J. M. Waterman 2005. Ontogenetic shifts and sex differences in caudal lurin the Dusky Pygmy Rattlesnake, Sistrurus miliarius barbouri. Herpetologica 61 (2): 87-91 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1953. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th ed. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Chicago, 280 pp. - get paper here
  • Schweiger, M. 1995. Florida - herpetologische Eindrücke einer Rundreise. Elaphe 3 (3): 76-80
  • Seung Hoon, Cha 2012. Snake, the world most beautifull curve [in Korean]. Hownext, 304 pp. [ISBN 978-89-965656-7-3] - get paper here
  • Snellings, Emmett, Jr;Collins, Joseph T. 1997. Sistrurus miliarius barbouri (Dusky Pigmy Rattlesnake). Maximum size Herpetological Review 28 (1): 46 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Vance, Thomas 1994. Sistrurus miliarius streckeri (western pigmy rattlesnake). USA: Louisiana Herpetological Review 25 (2): 77 - get paper here
  • Vicoso B, Emerson JJ, Zektser Y, Mahajan S, Bachtrog D 2013. Comparative Sex Chromosome Genomics in Snakes: Differentiation, Evolutionary Strata, and Lack of Global Dosage Compensation. PLoS Biol 11(8): e1001643 - get paper here
  • Werler, John E.&; James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
 
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