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Smaug warreni (BOULENGER, 1908)

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Higher TaxaCordylidae (Cordylinae), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesWarren’s Girdled Lizard 
SynonymZonurus warreni BOULENGER 1908
Cordylus warreni warreni — FITZSIMONS 1943
Cordylus warreni warreni — BOYCOTT 1992
Smaug warreni warreni — STANLEY et al. 2011
Cordylus warreni — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013
Smaug warreni — STANLEY & BATES 2014
Smaug warreni warreni — BATES et al. 2014: 210 
DistributionNE Republic of South Africa (from Ubombo Mountains in Zululand trough Transvaal Drakensberg, Soutpansberg), Swaziland, Botswana, Mozambique (up to Gorongoza Mountains)  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.8.1 (Note:Boulenger's description states two individuals both male but only one registered and only one in the jar) 
CommentDistribution: see map in STANLEY & BATES 2014: Figure 2. Not listed by AUERBACH 1987.

Subspecies: Cordylus warreni mossambicus, breyeri, regius, and vandami have been elevated to full species status and to a new genus, Smaug. Niels Jacobsen, in is unpublished 1989 thesis, wrote that the diagnostic characters of laevigatus were clinal with repect to eastern depressus, and that it should be synomomized [Ed Stanley, pers. comm., 31 Oct 2011]. 
  • Auerbach, R.D. 1987. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Botswana. Mokwepa Consultants, Botswana, 295 pp.
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Berghof, H.-P. 2006. Erfahrungen bei der Pflege und Vermehrung von Cordylus warreni depressus (FITZSIMONS 1930). Sauria 28 (2): 5-13 - get paper here
  • BERGHOF, H.-P.: 2011. Bemerkungen zur Geschlechtsreife von Cordyliden am Beispiel von Ouroborus cataphractus, Smaug mossambicus und Smaug warreni depressus. Sauria 33 (4): 41-46 - get paper here
  • Berghof, H.P. 2007. Cordylus mossambicus FITZSIMONS 1958 - Ein ausdauernder und interessanter Pflegling. Reptilia (Münster) 12 (65): 32-39 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1908. On a collection of fresh-water fishes, batrachians, and reptiles from Natal and Zululand, with description of new species. Ann Natal Gov. Mus. (Pietermaritzburg) 1(3): 219-235
  • Boycott, R.C. 1992. An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Swaziland. The Conservation Trust of Swaziland - get paper here
  • Branch, W. R. 1998. Field Guide to the Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. 3rd ed. Fully Revised and Updated to Include 83 New Species. Ralph Curtis Books (Sanibel Island, Florida), 399 pp.
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D.G. 1962. Cordylus warreni, a new addition to the southern Rhodesian list, with some remarks on other rupicolous lizards. Journal of the Herpetological Association of Rhodesia, 17/18: 5-8. - get paper here
  • Broadley, D.G. 1962. On some reptile collections from the North-Western and North-Eastern Districts of Southern Rhodesia 1958-1961, with descriptions of four new lizards. Occ. Pap. Nat. Mus. South. Rhodesia 26 (B): 787-843
  • Dam, G.P.F. van 1921. Descriptions of new species of Zonurus, and notes on the species of Zonurus occurring in the Transvaal. Annals Transvaal Mus. (Pretoria) 7 (4): 239-243
  • Dathe, Falk 1988. AT Terrarientierlexikon, Cordylus warreni depressus (Fitzsimons, 1930), Zoutpansberg-Gürtelschweif (Familie: Cordylidae, Gürtel- und Schildechsen). Aquarien und Terrarien (Leipzig), 35 (10): 359.
  • FitzSimons, V. F. 1930. Descriptions of new South African Reptilia and Batrachia, with distribution records of allied species in the Transvaal Museum collection. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 14: 20-48.
  • FitzSimons, VIVIAN 1933. Description of five new lizards from the Transvaal and Southern Rhodesia. Ann. Transvaal Mus. 15 (2): 273-280.
  • FitzSimons, VIVIAN 1958. A new Cordylus from Gorongoza, Mocambique. Ann. Natal Mus. (Pietermaritzburg) 14 (2): 351-353
  • Kirchhof, S., M. Krämer, J. Linden & K. Richter 2010. The reptile species assemblage of the Soutpansberg (Limpopo Province, South Africa) and its characteristics. Salamandra 46 (3): 147-166 - get paper here
  • Krabbe-Paulduro, Ursula & Paulduro, Ernst 1989. Cordylus warreni (Boulenger). Sauria 11 (4) Suppl.: 153-160. - get paper here
  • Mouton, le Fras; Alexander Flemming; Michael Bates and Chris Broeckhoven 2018. The relationship between generation gland morphology and armour in Dragon Lizards (Smaug): a reassessment of ancestral states for the Cordylidae. Amphibia-Reptilia - get paper here
  • MOUTON, P. LE FRAS N.; DAHNÉ A. JANSE VAN RENSBURG and JOHANNES H. VAN WYK 2010. Epidermal glands in cordylid lizards, with special reference to generation glands. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 312–324.
  • Pyron, R. Alexander; Frank T. Burbrink 2013. Early origin of viviparity and multiple reversions to oviparity in squamate reptiles. Ecology Letters 17 (1): 13–21 (published online 2013, in print 2014), DOI: 10.1111/ele.12168 - get paper here
  • Stanley, E. L. and Bates, M. F. 2014. Here be dragons: a phylogenetic and biogeographical study of the Smaug warreni species complex (Squamata: Cordylidae) in southern Africa. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172 (4): 892–909; doi: 10.1111/zoj.12187 - get paper here
  • Stanley, Edward L.; Aaron M. Bauer; Todd R. Jackman, William R. Branch, P. Le Fras N. Mouton 2011. Between a rock and a hard polytomy: rapid radiation in the rupicolous girdled lizard (Squamata: Cordylidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 58(1): 53-70. - get paper here
  • Switak, Karl H. 1995. Die Gürtelschweife der Gattung Cordylus (2). TI-Magazin, Nr. 122 (März 1995), 39-42.v
  • Switak, Karl H. 1995. Girdle-tailed lizards of the genus Cordylus. Reptiles 3 (6): 8-24
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