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Smithophis bicolor (BLYTH, 1855)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Brown Trapezoid Snake, Two-colored Forestsnake
G: Zweifarbige Waldwassernatter
Chinese: 黄腹杆蛇 
SynonymCalamaria bicolor BLYTH 1855: 289
Ablabes bicolor — GÜNTHER 1864
Grotea bicolor — THEOBALD 1868
Pseudocyclophis bicolor — BOULENGER 1890
Rhabdops bicolor — BOULENGER 1893: 301
Rhabdops bicolor — WALL 1908: 322
Rhabdops bicolor — SMITH 1943: 328
Rhabdops bicolor — DAS 1996: 59
Rhabdhops bicolor — LALTANPUIA et al. 2008 (in error)
Rhabdops bicolor — BHOSALE & JOSHI 2014
Rhabdops bicolor — WALLACH et al. 2014: 638
Smithophis bicolor — GIRI et al. 2019 
DistributionIndia (Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya; Arunachal Pradesh [A. Captain, pers. comm.], Maharashtra), N Myanmar (= Burma), China (W Yunnan)

Type locality: Asám (= Assam), India.  
TypesHolotype: ZSI 7030 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A Smithophis with temporal shields. 
CommentDistribution: Possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012).

Comparisons (genera): Ren et al. 2019: 121 (Table 6) provide a morphological comparison of natricine genera (Opisthotropis, Paratapinophis, Isanophis, Trimerodytes balteatus, Hebius annamensis, Trachischium fuscum/guentheri, Rhabdops = Smithophis bicolor, Atretium yunnanensis, Pseudagkistrodon rudis multiprefrontalis). 
EtymologyPresumably named after the two predominant colors in the species. 
  • Blyth, EDWARD. 1855. Notices and descriptions of various reptiles, new or little known [part 2]. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Calcutta, 23 (3): 287-302 [1854] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Chandramouli, S. R., Karthik, P., Naveen, R., Babu, S., Karunakaran, P. V., & Kumara, H. N. 2021. A Two-colored Forestsnake, Smithophis bicolor (Blyth 1855)(Reptilia: Natricidae), from the Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India. Reptiles & Amphibians 28 (1): 24-25 - get paper here
  • DAS A, Deepak V, Captain A, Wade EOZ, Gower DJ. 2020. Description of a new species of Smithophis Giri et al. 2019 (Serpentes: Colubridae: Natricinae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India. Zootaxa 4860 (2): 267-283 - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • GIRI, VARAD B.; DAVID J. GOWER, ABHIJIT DAS, H.T. LALREMSANGA, SAMUEL LALRONUNGA, ASHOK CAPTAIN, V. DEEPAK 2019. A new genus and species of natricine snake from northeast India. Zootaxa 4603 (2): 241-264 - get paper here
  • GIRI, VARAD B.; V. DEEPAK, ASHOK CAPTAIN, ABHIJIT DAS, SANDEEP DAS, K. P. RAJKUMAR, R. L. RATHISH, DAVID J. GOWER 2017. A new species of Rhabdops Boulenger, 1893 (Serpentes: Natricinae) from the northern Western Ghats region of India. Zootaxa 4319 (1): 027–052 - get paper here
  • Lalremsanga, H.T.; Saipari Sailo and Chinliansiama 2011. Diversity of Snakes (Reptilia: Squamata) and Role of Environmental Factors in Their Distribution in Mizoram, Northeast India. Advances in Environmental Chemistry - get paper here
  • Laltanpuia, T. C.; C. Lalrinchhana, Lalnunsanga, Lalrotluanga, Ricky Hmingthansanga, Arti Kumari, Vanlalsawmi Renthlei, S. Lalrintluangi and H. T. Lalremsanga 2008. Snakes (Reptilia: Serpentes) of Mizoram University Campus, Tanhril, Aizawl with notes on their identification keys [in Mizo]. Science Vision 8(4): 112-127 - get paper here
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Malsawmdawngliana, B. Boruah, N.G. Patel, S. Lalronunga, I. Zosangliana, K. Lalhmangaiha & A. Das 2022. An updated checklist of reptiles from Dampa Tiger Reserve, Mizoram, India, with sixteen new distribution records. Journal of Threatened Taxa 14(10): 21946–21960 - get paper here
  • Mell,R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Sci. Jour., Canton, 8 [1929]: 199-219.
  • REN, Jinlong; Kai WANG, Peng GUO, Yingyong WANG, Tao Thien NGUYEN, and Jiatang LI 2019. On the Generic Taxonomy of Opisthotropis balteata (Cope, 1895) (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae): Taxonomic Revision of Two Natricine Genera. Asian Herpetological Research 10 (2): 105–128; DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.180091 - get paper here
  • Ruatpuii, Rem; Lal Biakzuala, Vishal Santra, Hmar Tlawmte Lalremsanga 2022. Additional Notes on Morphology and Distributional Records of the Snake Genus Smithophis Giri, Gower, Das, Lalremsanga, Lalronunga, Captain et Deepak, 2019 (Squamata: Serpentes: Natricidae) from North-East India Russian Journal of Herpetology 29 (6): 331-340 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Wall,F. 1908. Notes on a collection of snakes from the Khasi Hills, Assam. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 312-337 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang K, Lyu ZT, Wang J, Qi S, Che J 2022. Updated Checklist and Zoogeographic Division of the Reptilian Fauna of Yunnan Province, China. Biodiversity Science 30 (4): 21326, 1–31 - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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