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Sonora straminea COPE, 1860

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common Namescinctus: E: Variable Sand Snake, Banded Sand Snake
cinctus: G: Gebänderte Sandschlange 
SynonymChilomeniscus stramineus COPE 1860: 339
Chilomeniscus ephippicus COPE 1867
Carphophis straminea — GARMAN 1884: 99
Chilomeniscus punctatissimus VAN DENBURGH & SLEVIN 1921
Chilomeniscus stramineus — STEBBINS 1985: 244
Chilomeniscus stramineus — LINER 1994
Chilomeniscus punctatissimus — LINER 1994
Chilomeniscus stramineus — MATTISON 2007: 85
Chilomeniscus stramineus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 159
Sonora straminea — COX et al. 2018
Chilomeniscus stramineus — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2019 
DistributionMexico (S Baja California Sur)

cinctus: USA (SW Arizona), Mexico (Baja California, W Sonora)

punctatissimus: Mexico  
TypesSyntypes: ANSP 3405, USNM 4674, 6495
Holotype: SDNHM = SDSNH 30368; paratypes SDNHM = SDSNH 30364-30367, 30369, 30370 [esterensis]
Holotype: CAS 49156 [punctatissimus] 
CommentChilomeniscus cinctus and C. punctatissimus have been synonymized with C. stramineus by GRISMER et al. (2002).

Type species: Chilomeniscus stramineus COPE 1860 is the type species of the genus Chilomeniscus COPE 1860.

All members of the genus Chilomeniscus have an elongated rostrum and are adapted to sandy, scrubby, and arid habitats in northern Mexico and south-western USA. 
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Contributions to the ophiology of Lower California, Mexico and Central America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 13: 292-306 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1861. Notes and descriptions of new and little-known species of American reptiles. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 339-345 [1860] - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1867. On the REPTILIA and BATRACHIA of the Sonoran Province of the Nearctic Region. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 18 [1866]: 300-314 - get paper here
  • Cox, Christian L.; Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Iris A. Holmes, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Corey E. Roelke, Eric N. Smith, Oscar Flores-Villela, Jimmy A. McGuire & Jonathan A. Campbell 2018. Synopsis and taxonomic revision of three genera in the snake tribe Sonorini. Journal of Natural History 52: 945-988 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Funk, Richard S. 1967. A New Colubrid Snake of the Genus Chionactis from Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 12 (2): 180 - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R., Charles R. Bursey and Jeanette Arreola. 2013. Chilomeniscus stramineus (variable sandsnake) endoparasites. Herpetological Review 44 (4): 688 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R., Clark R. Mahrdt and Kent R. Beaman. 2014. Chilomeniscus stramineus (variable sandsnake) reproduction. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 141 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. L., H. WONG & P. GALINA-TESSARO 2002. Geographic variation and taxonomy of the Sand Snakes, Chilomeniscus (Squamata: Colubridae). Herpetologica 58 (1): 18-31 - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Hoard, R.S. 1939. A new subspecies of snake of the genus Chilomeniscus. Pomona Coll. Jour. Ent. and Zool. 31 (4): 45-46
  • Jones, K.B.; Abbas, D.R. & Bergstedt, T. 1981. Herpetological records from Central and Northeastern Arizona. Herpetological Review 12 (1): 16 - get paper here
  • Kunz, Kriton 2015. Schlangen, die Wirbellose fressen. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (5): 14-20 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1964. Midwinter reconnaissance of the herpetofauna of the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 30 (7): 127-156 - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de los Reyes; Manuel, David Lazcano, Javier Banda-Leal and Ian Recchio 2014. Notes on Mexican Herpetofauna 22: Herpetofauna of the Continental Portion of the Municipality of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 49(8):105-115 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Van Denburgh, J.; Slevin, J. R. 1921. Preliminary diagnoses of more new species of reptiles from islands in the gulf of California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 11 (17): 395-398 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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