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Sphenomorphus indicus (GRAY, 1853)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Indian Forest Skink, Himalayan Forest Skink
G: Indischer Waldskink 
SynonymHinulia Indica GRAY 1853: 388
Eumeces indicus — ANDERSON 1871: 158
Lygosoma indicum — BOULENGER 1887: 241
Lygosoma zebratum BOULENGER 1887: 478
Lygosoma indicum — BOULENGER 1893: 319
Lygosoma cacharense ANNANDALE 1905: 145
Sphenomorphus indicus — STEJNEGER 1907: 216
Sphenomorphus indicus VAN DENBURGH 1912
Lygosoma bowringi MELL 1922 (not of GÜNTHER) (part.)
Sphenomorphus indicus — SCHMIDT 1928: 80
Lygosoma formosensis THOMPSON 1912
Sphenomorphus indicus formosensis VAN DENBURGH 1912
Lygosoma (Hinulia) indicum taeniatum WERNER 1922: 220
Lygosoma (Hinulia) indicum multilineatum WERNER 1922: 221
Lygosoma indicum indicum — SMITH 1935: 281
Sphenomorphus indicus indicus — TAYLOR 1963: 1020
Sphenomorphus formosensis — GREER & PARKER 1967
Sphenomorphus indicus indicus — GRANDISON 1972: 83
Sphenomorphus indicus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 278
Sphenomorphus indicus — COX et al. 1998: 119
Sphenomorphus cf. indicus — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 144
Sphenomorphus indicus — ZIEGLER 2002: 205
Lygosoma indicum — LI et al. 2003
Sphenomorphus indicus — GRISMER 2006 
DistributionS China (incl. Hainan, west to E Xizang = TIbet, and north to Henan, Shaanxi, and Gansu, Guangdong: Nan Ao Island), Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Taiwan, Thailand (likely in Bilauk Tuang mountain fide TAYLOR 1963: 1020), Vietnam, Cambodia,
India (Assam, Darjeeling, Sikkim, Mizoram) east to Indochina and south to W Malaysia, Laos

Type locality: Sikkim, Himalayas. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.8.15.49 and BMNH 1946.8.19.27, but declared unknown (fide SANG et al. 2009)
Holotype: ZSI 12076 [Lygosoma cacharense Annandale 1905]
Syntype: NMW [multilineatum]
Syntype: NMW [taeniatum]
Holotype: ZMH R06566 [Lygosoma zebratum] 
CommentNomenclature: For a discussion of priority issues concerning the nomenclature see Zhao & Adler 1993.

Synonymy partly after SMITH 1935. Boulenger (1893) regarded L. zebratum BOULENGER 1887 as a variety of L. zebratum Gray. TAYLOR 1963: 1020 proposed to recognize Lygosoma zebratum BOULENGER 1887 as a subspecies of S. indicus.

Keys: DAREVSKY et al. (1983) provide a key to Vietnamese Sphenomorphus.

Types: Syntypes: CAS 18622 + 18627 [formosensis]; syntypes of L. zebratum im BMNH, ZMH, MSNG.

Distribution: Reports from Bangladesh actually represent Eutropis macularia (MAHONY et al. 2009). 
References
  • Annandale, Nelson 1905. Contributions to Oriental Herpetology. Suppl. III. Notes on the Oriental lizards in the Indian Museum, with a list of the species recorded from British India and Ceylon. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal (2) 1: 139-151 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1909. Notes on Amphibia and Reptilia from Eastern Asia. Proc. New England zool. Club 4: 53-78, 2 plates - get paper here
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  • Boulenger, G. A. 1887. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, Anelytropsidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. London: 575pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1887. An account of the reptiles and batrachians obtained in Tenasserim by M. L. Fea, of the Genova Civic Museum. Ann. Mus. civ. stor. nat. Genova, 2. Ser. 5: 474-486 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Concluding report on the reptiles and batrachians obtained in Burma by Signor L. Fea, dealing with a collection made in Pegu and Karin Hills in 1887-1888. Ann. Mus. civ. stor. nat. Genova, 2. Ser. 8: 303-347. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Chen, Hao-Chung and Si-Min Lin. 2016. Sphenomorphus indicus (Indian Forest Skink) Predation. Herpetological Review 47 (2): 304
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  • Grismer, L. Lee 2006. Two new species of skinks (Genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843) from the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Herpetological Natural History 9 (2): 151-162.
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 2008. A new species of insular skink (Genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843) from the Langkawi Archipelago, Kedah, West Malaysia with the first report of the herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar and an updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Pulau Langkawi. Zootaxa 1691:53-66 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Thy Neang, Thou Chav, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Jamie R. Oaks, Jeremy Holden, Jesse L. Grismer, Thomas R. Szutz and Timothy M. Youmans 2008. Additional amphibians and reptiles from the Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary in Northwestern Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia, with comments on their taxonomy and the discovery of three new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 56 (1): 161-175 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2007. A new species of small montane forest floor skink (genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843) form Southern peninsular Malaysia. Herpetologica 63 (4): 544-551 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. et al. 2007. THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE PHNOM AURAL WILDLIFE SANCTUARY AND CHECKLIST OF THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE CARDAMOM MOUNTAINS, CAMBODIA. Hamadryad 31 (2): 216 – 241 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L., Neang, T., Chav, T. & Grismer, J.L. 2008. Checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the Cardamom region of Southwestern Cambodia. Cambodian Journal of Natural History 2008(1): 12–28 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; Ahmad, N. & Kin Onn, C. 2009. A new, diminutive, upland Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843 (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 2312: 27–38 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; Wood Jr., P.L. & Grismer, J.L. 2009. A New Insular Species of Skink of the Genus Sphenomorphus Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Scincidae) from Pulau Perhentian Besar, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 20(1): 51–69
  • Hecht, Vera L.; Cuong T. Pham, Tao T. Nguyen, Truong Q. Nguyen, Michael Bonkowski & Thomas Ziegler 2013. First report on the herpetofauna of Tay Yen Tu Nature Reserve, northeastern Vietnam. Biodiversity Journal 4 (4): 507–552
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  • Islam, Mazedul & Prasanta Kumar Saikia 2013. Inventory and Natural History of Lizards in Jeypore Rerserve Forest, Assam. Reptile Rap (15): 16-26 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Khan, M.M.H. 2007. First report of Reeve’s Ground Skink Scincella reevesi and Himalayan Litter Skink Sphenomorphus indicus from Bangladesh. Zoo’s Print Journal 22 (1): 2545
  • Lalremsanga, H.T., L. Khawlhring & Lalrotluanga 2010. Three additional lizard (Squamata: Sauria) records for Mizoram, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2(2): 718-720
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  • Li, Yong-Xiang; Xue, Xiang-Xu; Li, Xiao-Chen and Liu, Hu-Jun 2003. Additional notes of the [tooth] characteristics of some modern lizards. Acta Zool. Sinica 49 (4): 547-550
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  • Norval, Gerrut; Stephen R. Goldberg, Charles R. Bursey, Jean-Jay Mao, and Kerry Slater 2014. Internal Parasites of Lizards from Taiwan. Herp. Cons. Biol. 9 (3): 484−494 - get paper here
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  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Notes on the herpetology of Indo-China. Copeia 1928: 77-80 - get paper here
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  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • SUMARLI, ALEXANDRA; L. LEE GRISMER, PERRY L., JR. WOOD, AMIRRUDIN B. AHMAD, SYED RIZAL, LUKMAN H. ISMAIL, NUR AMALINA MOHD IZAM, NORHAYATI AHMAD, CHARLES W. LINKEM 2016. The first riparian skink (Genus: Sphenomorphus Strauch, 1887) from Peninsular Malaysia and its relationship to other Indochinese and Sundaic species Zootaxa 4173 (1): 029–044 - get paper here
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