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Spondylurus caicosae HEDGES & CONN, 2012

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCaicos Islands Skink 
SynonymSpondylurus caicosae HEDGES & CONN 2012: 145
Mabuya mabouia — BARBOUR, 1935:129 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanii — DUNN, 1936:546 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — GRANT, 1937:520 (part)
Mabuya mabouia — BARBOUR, 1937:147 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS, 1975:141 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — MACLEAN et al., 1977:20 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1988:151 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1991:457 (part)
Mabuya bistriata — POWELL et al., 1996:82 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — MAYER & LAZELL, 2000:883 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — HENDERSON & POWELL, 2009:293 (part) 
DistributionTurks and Caicos Islands

Type locality: Long Cay off South Caicos, Caicos Islands, Turks and Caicos  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: AMNH R-80126, an adult male, collected 10 February 1953 on Long Cay off South Caicos, Caicos Islands, Turks and Caicos, by G. B. Rabb.
Paratypes (n = 98). Caicos Islands, Turks and Caicos. AMNH R80125, AMNH R80127–30 (paratopotypes), same collection data as holotype; MCZ R-42061–62, J. C. Greenway, Ambergris Cay, March 1936; MCZ R- 182881, G. Mitchell, Long Cay, 12 May 2000; MCZ R-183341, N. C. Mitchell, Long Cay, 28 October 2000; MPM 21932–37, 0.5 miles E Cockburn Harbor, South Caicos, 14 January 1961 (no collector available); UMMZ 117392– 93, G. B. Rabb and C. L. Giovannoli, West Caicos, 4 February 1953; UMMZ 117394–96, G. B. Rabb and C. L. Giovannoli, West Cay of Six Hill Cays, 12 February 1953; USNM 81448, West Caicos, 4 August 1930 (no collector available). The following were all collected by A. Schwartz and colleagues: KU 242093–94, Bay Cay, 24 February 1972; KU 242095, Jacksonville, East Caicos, 22 January 1972; KU 242096, Little Ambergris Cay, 28 March 1972; KU 242097 (12 January 1961), KU 242116–29 (12–14 January 1961), KU 242130–66 (14 January 1961), KU 242167 (22 March 1961), vicinity of Cockburn Harbor, Long Cay; KU 242098, Bambarra, Middle Caicos, 25 January, 1972; KU 242099, Conch Bar, Middle Caicos, 31 January 1972; KU 242100–07, Kew, North Caicos, 6–21 February, 26 May 1972; KU 242108–09, vicinity of Belle Field Landing, North Caicos, 3 April 1974; KU 242110, Wades Green Plantation, North Caicos, 16 February 1972; KU 242111, near Whitby, North Caicos, 26 April 1974; KU 242112, Bottle Creek, North Caicos, 25 May 1971; KU 242113, Blue Hills, Providenciales, 22 February 1972; KU 242114, near Third Turtle Inn, Providenciales, 20 March 1972; KU 242115, Leeward, Providenciales, 16 March 1976; KU 242168–69, East Six Hill Cays, Caicos Islands, 18 January 1961. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Spondylurus caicosae sp. nov. is characterized by (1) maximum SVL in males, 72.4 mm; (2) maximum SVL in females, 77.6 mm; (3) snout width, 2.14–3.66% SVL; (4) head length, 15.0–18.5% SVL; (5) head width, 10.9–14.8% SVL; (6) ear length, 1.06–2.10% SVL; (7) toe-IV length, 7.86–12.2% SVL; (8) prefrontals, two; (9) supraoculars, three (5%), four (95%); (10) supraciliaries, three (16%), four (84%); (11) frontoparietals, two; (12) supralabial below the eye, four (5%), five (86%), six (7%), seven (2%); (13) nuchal rows, one (9%), two (91%); (14) dorsals, 56–65; (15) ventrals, 56–72; (16) dorsals + ventrals, 113–134; (17) midbody scale rows, 27–32; (18) finger-IV lamellae, 9–14; (19) toe-IV lamellae, 13–19; (20) finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae, 22–32; (21) supranasal contact, Y (46%), N (54%); (22) prefrontal contact, N; (23) supraocular-1/frontal contact, Y (38%), N (62%); (24) parietal contact, Y; (25) pale middorsal stripe, Y; (26) dark dorsolateral stripe, Y; (27) dark lateral stripe, Y; (28) pale lateral stripe, Y (weak); and (29) palms and soles, dark (Tables 3–5).
Within the Genus Spondylurus, S. caicosae sp. nov. differs from S. anegadae sp. nov., S. culebrae sp. nov., S. monae sp. nov., S. monitae sp. nov., S. semitaeniatus, and S. sloanii by having a lower dark dorsolateral stripe/ middorsal stripe ratio (0.238–0.805 versus 0.874–3.79 in those other species). It is separated from S. anegadae sp. nov. and S. macleani by having distinct dorsal spots posterior to the dark dorsolateral stripes (versus essentially no dorsal pattern posterior to the dark dorsolateral stripes in those other species). It is separated from S. magnacruzae sp. nov. and S. spilonotus by having fewer midbody scale rows (27–32 versus 34 in those other species). From S. fulgidus, it is separated by having dark lateral stripes with paler (included) spots and irregular pale lateral stripes that extend only half-way (or less) to hindlimbs, ending in vertical bars (versus solid dark lateral stripes and pale lateral stripes continuous to the hindlimbs in S. fulgidus) and by having a lower number of supraciliaries (3–4 versus five in S. fulgidus). From S. lineolatus, it differs by having a longer head (head length 15.0–18.5% SVL versus 12.9–14.4% SVL in S. lineolatus) and by having two dark dorsolateral stripes and two dark lateral stripes (versus 10 dark stripes in S. lineolatus). It is distinguished from S. monitae sp. nov. by having straighter dark dorsolateral stripes (versus dark dorsolateral stripes that bow inward on the parietal scales in S. monitae sp. nov.). It differs from S. nitidus in having a dark lateral stripe that extends only half-way (or less) to hindlimbs, ending in vertical bars (versus extending mostly to hindlimbs, albeit faintly, in S. nitidus). It differs from S. turksae sp. nov. in having a shorter ear (ear height 0.73–1.52% SVL versus 1.57–1.87% SVL), a narrower pale dorsolateral stripe (1.02–1.73% SVL versus 1.98–2.33% SVL), and a dark lateral stripe that extends only half-way (or less) to hindlimbs, ending in vertical bars (versus extending to hindlimbs in S. turksae sp. nov.).
Besides those non-overlapping differences, there are frequency differences that distinguish Spondylurus caicosae sp. nov. from other species. It differs from S. nitidus and S. turksae sp. nov. in being smaller (< 77.6 mm SVL in 99 specimens versus seven of 13 S. nitidus > 79.6 mm SVL and three of seven S. turksae sp. nov. > 77.7 mm SVL). From S. culebrae sp. nov., S. haitiae sp. nov., S. magnacruzae sp. nov., S. monae sp. nov., and S. spilonotus, it differs by having fewer supralabial scales (supralabial four or five below the eye in 91% of specimens versus supralabial six or seven below the eye in 83–100% of specimens belonging to those other species). It differs from S. haitiae sp. nov. by having fewer ventral scales (56–68 in 98% of specimens versus 69–72 in S. haitiae sp. nov.). From S. macleani, it is distinguished by having fewer midbody scale rows (27–31 in 94% of specimens versus 32–34 in S. macleani). It differs from S. martinae sp. nov. by having fewer ventral scales (56–65 in 95% of specimens versus 68–71 in S. martinae sp. nov.) and by having fewer finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae (22–29 in 92% of specimens versus 30–36 in 89% of specimens belonging to S. martinae sp. nov.). It differs from S. nitidus by having fewer finger-IV lamellae (9–12 in 89% of specimens versus 13–15 in 80% of specimens belonging to S. nitidus). It is distinguished from S. powelli sp. nov. by having fewer midbody scale rows (27–31 in 94% of specimens versus 32–34 in S. powelli sp. nov.) and by having fewer dorsals + ventrals (113–124 in 85% of specimens versus 125–132 in 93% of specimens belonging to S. powelli sp. nov.). From S. semitaeniatus, it differs by having a lower number of midbody scale rows (27–30 in 92% of specimens belonging to S. caicosae sp. nov. versus 31–34 in S. semitaeniatus). Additionally—and except for S. anegadae sp. nov., S. lineolatus, and S. powelli sp. nov.—S. caicosae sp. nov. is a smaller species than all others within Spondylurus (maximum adult SVL 77.6 mm versus 79.3–107 mm in other species) [HEDGES & CONN 2012]. 
Comment 
EtymologyThe species name (caicosae) is a feminine genitive singular noun referring to the distribution of the species in the Caicos Islands. 
References
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244 - get paper here
 
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