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Spondylurus culebrae HEDGES & CONN, 2012

IUCN Red List - Spondylurus culebrae - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesCulebra Skink 
SynonymSpondylurus culebrae HEDGES & CONN 2012: 149
Mabuya sloanii — STEJNEGER, 1904:608 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — BARBOUR, 1914:320 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — SCHMIDT, 1928:121 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — BARBOUR, 1930:105 (part)
Mabuya semitaeniatus — GRANT, 1931:217 (part)
Mabuya semitaeniatus — GRANT, 1932a:162 (part)
Mabuya mabouia — BARBOUR, 1935:129 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanii — DUNN, 1936:544 (part)
Mabuya mabouia — BARBOUR, 1937:147 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — GRANT, 1937:504 (part).
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS, 1975:141 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — MACLEAN et al., 1977:29 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloani — RIVERO, 1978:71 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — HEATWOLE et al., 1981:34 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1988:151 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1991:457 (part)
Mabuya bistriata — POWELL et al., 1996:82 (part).
Mabuya mabouya sloani — RIVERO, 1998:394 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — MAYER & LAZELL, 2000:883 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — MIRALLES, 2005: 49 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — HENDERSON & POWELL 2009:293 (part) 
DistributionPuerto Rico (Culebra, Culebrita)

Type locality: Culebra, Puerto Rico  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: UMMZ 73823, an adult male, collected April 1932 on Culebra, Puerto Rico, United States (no specific locality within Culebra) by Chapman Grant. Paratypes (n = 49). Culebra, Puerto Rico. AMNH 14005–06, K. P. Schmidt & B. A. Wall, no specific locality, 5 October 1919; UMMZ 73819–20, UMMZ 73822–23, UMMZ 73826, UMMZ 239548–80 and 239582– 89, C. Grant, no specific locality, February–April, 1932. USNM 576302, no specific locality, R. Thomas. Culebrita, Puerto Rico. UMMZ 80786, C. Grant, no specific locality, August, 1936. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Spondylurus culebrae sp. nov. is characterized by (1) maximum SVL in males, 88.0 mm; (2) maximum SVL in females, 97.6 mm; (3) snout width, 2.28–3.50% SVL; (4) head length, 16.0–21.6% SVL; (5) head width, 11.4–16.1% SVL; (6) ear length, 1.36–2.36% SVL; (7) toe-IV length, 8.42–12.9% SVL; (8) prefrontals, two; (9) supraoculars, three (14%), four (86%); (10) supraciliaries, three (2%), four (90%), five (6%), six (2%); (11) frontoparietals, two (98%), three (2%); (12) supralabial below the eye, five (16%), six (82%), seven (2%); (13) nuchal rows, one (4%), two (88%), three (8%); (14) dorsals, 57–65; (15) ventrals, 60–70; (16) dorsals + ventrals, 121–134; (17) midbody scale rows, 30–36; (18) finger-IV lamellae, 13–16; (19) toe-IV lamellae, 14–19; (20) finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae, 28–34; (21) supranasal contact, Y (80%), N (20%); (22) prefrontal contact, N; (23) supraocular-1/frontal contact, Y (29%), N (71%); (24) parietal contact, Y (98%), N (2%); (25) pale middorsal stripe, Y; (26) dark dorsolateral stripe, Y; (27) dark lateral stripe, Y; (28) pale lateral stripe, Y; and (29) palms and soles, pale (Tables 3–5).

Within the Genus Spondylurus, S. culebrae sp. nov. differs from S. caicosae sp. nov., S. fulgidus, S. haitiae sp. nov., S. macleani, S. magnacruzae sp. nov., S. martinae sp. nov., S. nitidus, S. powelli sp. nov., S. spilonotus, and S. turksae sp. nov. by having a higher dark dorsolateral stripe width/middorsal stripe width ratio (0.953–2.24 versus 0.115–0.916 in those other species). It differs from S. anegadae sp. nov., S. macleani, and S. turksae sp. nov. by having dark dorsal spots posterior to the dark dorsolateral stripes (versus essentially no dorsal pattern posterior to the dark dorsolateral stripes in those other species). It differs from S. haitiae sp. nov. and S. lineolatus by having a longer head (head length 16.0–21.6% SVL versus 12.9–15.8% SVL in those other species). From S. anegadae sp. nov., it is separated by a plot of interparietal width versus SVL (Fig. 57). It is distinguished from S. fulgidus by having a higher number of combined dorsals and ventrals (121–134 versus 108–120 in S. fulgidus). It is separated from S. lineolatus by having a higher number of midbody scale rows (30–36 versus 26–28). It differs from S. monae sp. nov. by having a higher, shorter rostral scale (Fig. 61). From S. monitae sp. nov., it differs by having straighter dark dorsolateral stripes (versus dark dorsolateral stripes that bow inward on the parietal scales). From S. semitaeniatus, it is distinguished by having longer total head scalation (Fig. 62A). From S. sloanii, it is distinguished by having a relatively longer head and more finger-IV lamellae (Fig. 62B).
The following frequency differences also distinguish Spondylurus culebrae sp. nov. from other species. It differs by having supranasal contact in 80% of specimens versus no contact in 81–100% of specimens belonging to S. martinae sp. nov., S. powelli sp. nov., and S. turksae sp. nov. It is distinguished from S. monitae sp. nov. by having a higher number of supralabial scales (supralabial six or seven below the eye in 84% of specimens versus supralabial five below the eye in S. monitae sp. nov.). Spondylurus culebrae sp. nov. tends to have more midbody scale rows (30–36) than S. nitidus (28–33); 78% of S. culebrae sp. nov. have 32 or more whereas 53% of S. nitidus have 30 or fewer. Spondylurus culebrae sp. nov. also tends to have more dorsals + ventrals (121–134) than S. nitidus (117–129); 88% of S. culebrae sp. nov. have 123 or more whereas 46% of S. nitidus have 122 or fewer. From S. sloanii, it differs by having more finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae (30–34 in 81% of S. culebrae sp. nov. versus 24–29 in 95% of S. sloanii) and by having a greater separation of the prefrontals (frontal/frontonasal suture length 0.51–1.2% SVL in 84% of S. culebrae sp. nov. versus 0–0.38% SVL in 81% of S. sloanii). Additionally, S. culebrae sp. nov. is a large species (maximum adult SVL 97.6 mm versus 63.7–95.5 mm in all others within Spondylurus except S. magnacruzae sp. nov. and S. spilonotus).
 
CommentSynonymy: Pinto-Sánchez et al. 2015 synonymized culebrae, macleani, and monitae with Spondylurus sloani.

Conservation status: endangered (Adkins-Giese et al. 2014). 
EtymologyThe species name (culebrae) is a feminine genitive singular noun referring to the distribution of the species on the island of Culebra. 
References
  • Adkins-Giese, C.L., Curry, T., Platenberg, R. 2014. PETITION TO LIST NINE SPECIES OF CARIBBEAN SKINKS AS ENDANGERED UNDER THE ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT. CENTER FOR BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY, 61 pp. - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244 - get paper here
  • Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa, Aurelien Miralles, Andrew J. Crawford, Martha Patricia Ramírez-Pinilla 2015. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Neotropical skink genus Mabuya Fitzinger (Squamata: Scincidae) with emphasis on Colombian populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.016 - get paper here
 
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