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Spondylurus macleani (MAYER & LAZELL, 2000)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Slippery Back (local name), Carrot Rock Skink 
SynonymMabuya macleani MAYER & LAZELL 2000
Mabuya mabouya sloani — CAREY 1972
Mabuya mabouya sloanii — MAYER & LAZELL 1988: 23 (part.)
Mabuya bistriata — POWELL et al. 1996:82 (part)
Mabuya macleani — MAUSFELD et al. 2002
Spondylurus macleani — HEDGES & CONN 2012: 167 
DistributionCarrot Rock, British Virgin Islands

Type locality: Carrot Rock, British Virgin Islands, 18° 19’ 45” N, 64° 34’ 18” W  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 170884 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A pallid tan to brownish gray New World Mabuya (Dunn 1936, Greer 1970) with one or two pairs of enlarged nuchals (their combined widths more than 75 percent of the width of the parietals); two frontoparietals; parietal overlapping upper anterior temporal (Greer & Nussbaum 2000); midbody scales in 32-34 rows; 16-18 subdigital lamellae under fourth toe of pes; limbs moderately long; dark dorsal markings fragmented or absent on head and separated from dark dorsolateral stripes on nape; nape stripes reduced, separated by all or most of two dorsal scales and not extending more than 21 dorsal scales posterior to parietals; lateral dark stripes poorly developed. Mabuya macleani is distinguished from the geographically nearest populations of M. sloanii by the much reduced dorsolateral dark stripe, the continuous stripe beginning behind the head in M. macleani (on the head in M. sloanii), and extending only to the level of the forelimbs (behind the forelimbs in M. sloanii).

Diagnosis. Spondylurus macleani is characterized by (1) maximum SVL in males, 75.5 mm; (2) maximum SVL in females, 79.6 mm; (3) snout width, 2.47–3.09% SVL; (4) head length, 16.0–17.5% SVL; (5) head width, 12.1–13.8% SVL; (6) ear length, 1.29–1.52% SVL; (7) toe-IV length, 8.22–10.5% SVL; (8) prefrontals, two; (9) supraoculars, four; (10) supraciliaries, three (20%), four (60%), five (20%); (11) frontoparietals, two; (12) supralabial below the eye, five (40%), six (60%); (13) nuchal rows, one (20%), two (80%); (14) dorsals, 62–65; (15) ventrals, 62–64; (16) dorsals + ventrals, 125–127; (17) midbody scale rows, 32–34; (18) finger-IV lamellae, 12–14; (19) toe-IV lamellae, 15–18; (20) finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae, 28–31; (21) supranasal contact, Y (60%), N (40%); (22) prefrontal contact, N; (23) supraocular-1/frontal contact, Y (20%), N (80%); (24) parietal contact, Y; (25) pale middorsal stripe, Y; (26) dark dorsolateral stripe, Y (faint); (27) dark lateral stripe, Y (very faint); (28) pale lateral stripe, N; and (29) palms and soles, pale (Tables 3–5).
Within the Genus Spondylurus, S. macleani differs from all other species except S. anegadae sp. nov. and S. turksae sp. nov. by having short and faded dorsolateral and dark lateral stripes, and essentially no dorsal pattern posterior to those stripes. From S. anegadae sp. nov., S. culebrae sp. nov., S. monae sp. nov., S. monitae sp. nov., S. semitaeniatus, and S. sloanii, it differs by having a wider middorsal stripe (3.14–3.96% SVL versus 0.953– 2.81% in those other species). It differs from S. haitiae sp. nov. and S. fulgidus by having a higher number of dorsal scales (62–65 versus 52–60 in those other species). It differs from S. magnacruzae sp. nov. and S. spilonotus by having a higher dark dorsolateral stripe width/middorsal dark stripe width ratio (0.608–0.916 versus 0.276–0.464 in those other species). From S. culebrae sp. nov., it differs by having a lower dark dorsolateral stripe width/ middorsal stripe width ratio (0.608–0.916 versus 0.953–2.24 in S. culebrae sp. nov.). It is distinguished from S. lineolatus by having a higher number of finger-IV lamellae (12–14 versus 8–11 in S. lineolatus). It is separated from S. martinae sp. nov. by having a lower number of ventrals (62–64 versus 68–71 in S. martinae sp. nov.). It differs from S. turksae sp. nov. in having more midbody scale rows (32–34 versus 30).
Frequency differences also separate Spondylurus macleani from other species within the genus. It is separated from S. caicosae sp. nov. by having a higher number of midbody scale rows (32–34 versus 27–31 in 94% of specimens belonging to S. caicosae sp. nov.). It differs from S. monitae sp. nov. by having a lower frequency of supraocular-1/frontal contact (no contact in 80% of specimens versus contact in 86% of specimens belonging to S. monitae sp. nov.). It is separated from S. nitidus by having a smaller head (head length 16.0–17.0% SVL in 80% of specimens versus 17.4–20.7% SVL in 87% of specimens belonging to S. nitidus) and by having a shorter toe-IV (toe-IV length 8.22%–9.26% SVL in 80% of specimens versus 10.1–12.7% SVL in 93% of specimens belonging to S. nitidus). It is distinguished from S. powelli sp. nov. by having a higher dark dorsolateral stripe width/middorsal stripe width ratio (0.608–0.916 versus 0.232–0.606 in 87% of specimens belonging to S. powelli sp. nov.) [HEDGES & CONN 2012]. 
CommentSynonymy: Pinto-Sánchez et al. 2015 synonymized culebrae, macleani, and monitae with Spondylurus sloani.

Pallid, drab, almost patternless skink. Closely related to M. sloanii.

Abundance: only known from (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe species (macleani) was named in honor of William P. MacLean III (1943–1991) for his contributions to the herpetology of the Virgin Islands (Mayer & Lazell 2000). 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Carey, W.M. 1972. The Herpetology of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Carib. J. Sci. 12(1/2): 79-89.
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244 - get paper here
  • Mausfeld, Patrick; Andreas SCHMITZ; Wolfgang BÖHME; Bernhard MISOF; Davor VRCIBRADIC; Carlos Frederico Duarte ROCHA 2002. Phylogenetic Affinities of Mabuya atlantica Schmidt, 1945, Endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha (Brazil): Necessity of Partitioning the Genus Mabuya Fitzinger, 1826 (Scincidae: Lygosominae). Zool. Anz. 241: 281–293
  • Mayer,G.C. & Lazell,J. 2000. A new species of Mabuya (Sauria: Scincidae) from the British Virgin Islands. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 113 (4): 871-886 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Pinto-Sánchez, Nelsy Rocío; Martha L. Calderón-Espinosa, Aurelien Miralles, Andrew J. Crawford, Martha Patricia Ramírez-Pinilla 2015. Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Neotropical skink genus Mabuya Fitzinger (Squamata: Scincidae) with emphasis on Colombian populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.016 - get paper here
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