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Spondylurus martinae HEDGES & CONN, 2012

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesSaint Martin Skink 
SynonymSpondylurus martinae HEDGES & CONN 2012: 174
Mabuya mabouia — BARBOUR, 1935:129 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanii — DUNN, 1936:544 (part)
Mabuya mabouia — BARBOUR, 1937:147 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS, 1975:141 (part)
Mabuya mabouya mabouya — MACLEAN et al., 1977:36 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1988:151 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1991:457 (part)
Mabuya bistriata — POWELL et al., 1996:82 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — MAYER & LAZELL, 2000:883 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — BREUIL, 2002:273 (part) 
DistributionSt. Martin, Little Bay

Type locality: Little Bay, St. Martin  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MCZ R-86418, an adult female, collected in the vicinity of Little Bay, St. Martin, by G. A. Scamon (no other data). Date of accession, 1965. Paratypes (n = 8). St. Martin. MCZ R-86419 (paratopotype), same collection data as holotype; ANSP 9503– 07 and 9414–15, collected by H. E. Rijgersma, no specific locality, date unrecorded, but probably 1863–77 (see Remarks). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Spondylurus martinae sp. nov. is characterized by (1) maximum SVL in males, not available; (2) maximum SVL in females, 83.1 mm; (3) snout width, 2.15–2.78% SVL; (4) head length, 15.0–17.1% SVL; (5) head width, 9.97–12.3% SVL; (6) ear length, 1.27–1.93% SVL; (7) toe-IV length, 8.22–10.5% SVL; (8) prefrontals, two; (9) supraoculars, three (78%), four (22%); (10) supraciliaries, four; (11) frontoparietals, two; (12) supralabial below the eye, five (56%), six (44%); (13) nuchal rows, one (20%), two (40%), three (40%); (14) dorsals, 56–65; (15) ventrals, 68–71; (16) dorsals + ventrals, 124–133; (17) midbody scale rows, 32–34; (18) finger-IV lamellae, 13–17; (19) toe-IV lamellae, 15–19; (20) finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae, 28–36; (21) supranasal contact, Y (11%), N (89%); (22) prefrontal contact, Y (11%), N (89%); (23) supraocular-1/frontal contact, Y (67%), N (33%); (24) parietal contact, Y; (25) pale middorsal stripe, Y; (26) dark dorsolateral stripe, Y; (27) dark lateral stripe, Y; (28) pale lateral stripe, Y; and (29) palms and soles, pale (Tables 3–5).

Within the Genus Spondylurus, S. martinae sp. nov. differs from S. anegadae sp. nov., S. culebrae sp. nov., S. haitiae sp. nov., S. monae sp. nov., S. monitae sp. nov., and S. semitaeniatus by having a narrower dark dorsolateral stripe (1.86–2.09% SVL versus 2.12–4.64% SVL in those other species). It is separated from S. fulgidus, S. lineolatus, S. macleani, S. nitidus, S. powelli sp. nov., and S. turksae sp. nov. by having a higher number of ventral scales (68–71 versus 55–67 in those other species). It is distinguished from S. anegadae sp. nov., S. monae sp. nov., S. semitaeniatus, and S. sloanii by having a wider middorsal stripe (2.76–4.01% SVL versus 0.953–2.62% SVL in those other species). It is distinguished from S. magnacruzae sp. nov. and S. spilonotus by having a higher dark dorsolateral stripe width/middorsal stripe width ratio (0.500–0.742 versus 0.276–0.464 in those other species). From S. nitidus, it differs by having a narrower head (head width 9.97–12.3% SVL versus 12.5–14.6% SVL in S. nitidus). From S. fulgidus, it differs by having a lower number of supraciliaries (four versus five in S. fulgidus). From S. haitiae sp. nov., it differs by having a larger ear (ear length 1.27–1.93% SVL versus 1.19% in S. haitiae sp. nov.). It is separated from S. lineolatus by having a higher number of finger-IV lamellae (13–17 versus 8–11 in S. lineolatus). From S. turksae sp. nov., it differs in having more midbody scale rows (32–34 versus 30). It is distinguished from S. monitae sp. nov. by having straighter dark dorsolateral stripes (versus dark dorsolateral stripes that bow inward on the parietal scales in S. monitae sp. nov.).
Frequency differences also separate Spondylurus martinae sp. nov. from other species within the genus. From S. anegadae sp. nov., S. culebrae sp. nov., S. semitaeniatus, and S. sloanii, it differs by having a lower frequency of supranasal contact (no contact in 89% of specimens versus supranasal contact in 80–100% of specimens belonging to those other species). It differs from S. monae sp. nov. and S. nitidus by having a shorter head (head length 15.0– 17.1% SVL versus 17.3–20.7% in 83–86% of specimens belonging to those other species). It is distinguished from S. caicosae sp. nov. by having a higher number of ventral scales (68–71 versus 56–65 in 95% of specimens belonging to S. caicosae sp. nov.) and by having a higher number of midbody scale rows (32–34 versus 27–31 in 94% of specimens belonging to S. caicosae sp. nov.). From S. powelli sp. nov., it differs by having a higher number of finger-IV + toe-IV lamellae (30–36 in 89% of specimens versus 25–29 in 94% of specimens belonging to S. powelli sp. nov.) [HEDGES & CONN 2012]. 
CommentDunn (1936) considered skinks from St. Martin, part of the Anguilla Bank in the northern Lesser Antilles, to be intermediate between his races of Mabuya mabouya. He did this because of the presence of dark dorsolateral stripes (a "M. mabouya sloanii" character) and a combination of characters from that race and "M. m. mabouya" (three and four supraoculars, one and multiple nuchal rows). However, supraoculars are frequently variable in species, and our counts of nuchals indicate a higher proportion of specimens of S. martinae sp. nov. with multiple rows of nuchals. Although no DNA data are available, the bold dorsolateral stripes (dark and pale) of S. martinae sp. nov. place that species in the Genus Spondylurus. The smaller maximum body size (83 mm SVL versus ~100 mm SVL in species of the Genus Mabuya) and presence of multiple nuchals in most specimens of S. martinae sp. nov. further support its placement in the Genus Spondylurus [HEDGES & CONN 2012].

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe species name (martinae) is a feminine genitive singular noun referring to the distribution of the species on the island of St. Martin. 
References
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244 - get paper here
  • Lorvelec O, Pisanu B, Schmitt A, Vallon T. 2013. Spondylurus martinae (Saint Martin Skink). Distribution. Caribbean Herpetology 39: 1 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
 
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