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Spondylurus monae HEDGES & CONN, 2012

IUCN Red List - Spondylurus monae - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesMona Skink 
SynonymSpondylurus monae HEDGES & CONN 2012: 179
Mabuia sloanii — BOULENGER, 1896:113 (part)
Mabuia sloanii — MEERWARTH, 1901:37 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — STEJNEGER, 1904:608 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — BARBOUR, 1914:320 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — SCHMIDT, 1926:156 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — SCHMIDT, 1928:121 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — BARBOUR, 1930:105 (part)
Mabuya semitaeniatus — GRANT, 1931:217 (part)
Mabuya semitaeniatus — GRANT, 1932a:162 (part)
Mabuya mabouia — BARBOUR, 1935:129 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanii — DUNN, 1936:544 (part)
Mabuya mabouia — BARBOUR, 1937:147 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — GRANT, 1937:504 (part).
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS, 1975:141 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — MACLEAN et al., 1977:27 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloani — RIVERO, 1978:71 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — HEATWOLE et al., 1981:34 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1988:151 (part)
Mabuya mabouya sloanei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON, 1991:457 (part)
Mabuya bistriata — POWELL et al., 1996:82 (part).
Mabuya mabouya sloani — RIVERO, 1998:394 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — MAYER & LAZELL, 2000:883 (part)
Mabuya sloanii — HENDERSON & POWELL, 2009:293 (part) 
DistributionMona Island

Type locality: Mona Island, Puerto Rico  
TypesHolotype: UMMZ 73824, from Mona Island, Puerto Rico, United States (no specific locality on Mona), collected in July 1931 by Chapman Grant.
Paratypes (n = 34). Mona Island, Puerto Rico (no specific locality unless indicated). CAS 10581–82, Harry A. Beatty, September 1944; CAS 14628, Chapman Grant (no additional collection information available); CM 23774– 76, Harry A. Beatty, Sardinera, August 1944; MCZ R-36625–28, Chapman Grant, May–June 1931; RT 11933, beach woods behind Playa de Mujeres, 22–23 April 1994; UMMZ 73817–18 and 239529–32, Chapman Grant, May 1932; UMMZ 73825 and 239547, Chapman Grant, summer 1931; UMMZ 124819, Harold Heatwole, on road between lighthouse and landing pier, 5 November 1960; UMMZ 239533–46, Chapman Grant, July 1931. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Spondylurus monae sp. nov. is characterized by (1) maximum SVL in males, 85.9 mm; (2) maximum SVL in females, 85.0 mm; unsexed holotype, 87.0 mm SVL; (3) snout width, 2.25–3.58% SVL; (4) head length, 16.1–20.0% SVL; (5) head width, 11.1–13.9% SVL; (6) ear length, 1.23–2.26% SVL; (7) toe-IV length, 8.09–10.4% SVL; (8) prefrontals, two; (9) supraoculars, three (3%), four (97%); (10) supraciliaries, three (3%), four (91%), five (6%); (11) frontoparietals, two; (12) supralabial below the eye, five (9%), six (91%); (13) nuchal rows, two (74%), three (26%); (14) dorsals, 56–65; (15) ventrals, 60–72; (16) dorsals + ventrals, 119–135; (17) midbody scale rows, 28–34; (18) finger-IV lamellae, 11–16; (19) toe-IV lamellae, 15–19; (20) finger-IV + toe- IV lamellae, 26–33; (21) supranasal contact, Y (60%), N (40%); (22) prefrontal contact, N; (23) supraocular-1/ frontal contact, Y (59%), N (41%); (24) parietal contact, Y; (25) pale middorsal stripe, Y; (26) dark dorsolateral stripe, Y; (27) dark lateral stripe, Y; (28) pale lateral stripe, Y; and (29) palms and soles, pale (Tables 3–5).
Within the Genus Spondylurus, S. monae sp. nov. is distinguished from S. caicosae sp. nov., S. fulgidus, S. haitiae sp. nov., S. macleani, S. magnacruzae sp. nov., S. martinae sp. nov., S. nitidus, S. powelli sp. nov., S. spilonotus, and S. turksae sp. nov. by having a higher dark dorsolateral stripe width/middorsal stripe width ratio (0.985–2.14 versus 0.115–0.916 in those other species). It is distinguished from S. culebrae sp. nov., S. monitae sp. nov., S. nitidus, S. semitaeniatus, S. sloanii, and S. turksae sp. nov. by having a longer rostral scale (Fig. 61). It differs from S. anegadae sp. nov., S. caicosae sp. nov., and S. macleani, by having dark lateral stripes nearly continuous to the hindlimbs (versus absent or only on anterior body in those other species). It is separated from S. anegadae sp. nov., S. macleani, S. powelli sp. nov., S. sloanii, and S. turksae sp. nov. by the presence of a distinct pale lateral stripe (versus no or faint pale lateral stripe in those other species). From S. haitiae sp. nov., it differs by having a larger ear (ear length 1.23–2.26% SVL versus 1.19% in S. haitiae sp. nov.). It differs from S. lineolatus by having a longer head (head length 16.1–20.0% SVL versus 12.9–14.4% SVL in S. lineolatus) and by having two dark dorsolateral stripes and two dark lateral stripes (versus 10 dark equal-sized and equally-spaced narrow stripes in S. lineolatus). From S. monitae sp. nov., it is distinguished by having parallel (versus concave) dark dorsolateral stripes on the parietal scales. From S. anegadae sp. nov., it is larger (maximum SVL 87.0 mm versus 70.4 mm SVL).
Spondylurus monae sp. nov. also differs from other species in slightly overlapping characters. It is distinguished from S. magnacruzae sp. nov. and S. spilonotus by having a lower number of midbody scale rows (28–33 in 91% of specimens versus 34 in those other species). From S. fulgidus, it differs by having a lower number of supraciliaries (3–4 in 94% of specimens versus five in S. fulgidus). It is separated from S. martinae sp. nov. by having a longer head (head length 17.3–20.0% SVL in 83% of specimens versus 15.0–17.1% in S. martinae sp. nov.). It is separated from S. nitidus by having a shorter toe-IV (toe-IV length 8.09–10.0% SVL in 88% of specimens versus 10.1–12.7% SVL in 93% of specimens belonging to S. nitidus). In coloration, individuals from Mona (S. monae sp. nov.) have been described as being distinctly paler (in life) than those from Puerto Rico (= S. nitidus) and having white dorsolateral lines instead of iridescent bluish lines (Grant 1931; Rivero 1998). Also, S. monae sp. nov. tends to have triangular-shaped dark spots on the dorsum, whereas such spots are lacking in S. nitidus, as noted by Grant (1931) [HEDGES & CONN 2012].
CommentConservation status: endangered (Adkins-Giese et al. 2014).

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe species name (monae) is a feminine genitive singular noun referring to the distribution of the species on the island of Mona. 
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
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