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Stenocercus arndti VENEGAS, ECHEVARRIA & ÁLVAREZ, 2014

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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: La Granja whorltail lizard
S: Capón de La Granja 
SynonymStenocercus arndti VENEGAS, ECHEVARRIA & ÁLVAREZ 2014 
DistributionPeru (Cajamarca)

Type locality: Quebrada Checos (6°21 ́12.63 ́ ́ S, 79°06 ́41.15 ́ ́ W), at 1997 m elevation, La Granja District, Chota Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: CORBIDI 01680 (Figs. 1–3), an adult male, collected by P.J. Venegas on 22 August 2008. Paratypes. CORBIDI 01681 and 01685, an adult male and adult female, respectively, collected with the holotype; CORBIDI 01682 and 01688, adult males; CORBIDI 01692, adult female; CORBIDI 01686, 01687, and 01690, subadult males; CORBIDI 01683 and 01689, subadult females; CORBIDI 01691, a juvenile male; CORBIDI 01684, a hatchling, all from Quebrada La Iraca, (6°22 ́09.9 ́ ́ S, 79°08 ́04.61 ́ ́ W), at 2213 m elevation, La Granja District, Chota Province, Cajamarca Region, Peru, collected by P.J. Venegas on 9 August 2008. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Stenocercus arndti differs from all other species of Stenocercus, except for S. bolivarensis Castro & Ayala 1982, S. carrion Parker 1934, S. chlorostictus Cadle 1991, S. crassicaudatus Tschudi 1845, S. empetrus Fritts 1972, S. eunetopsis Calde 1991, S. simonsii Boulenger 1885, and S. torquatus Boulenger 1885, in having granular scales on the posterior surface of the thighs, two caudal whorls per autotomic segment, mucronate caudal scales, and a distinct longitudinal row of enlarged vertebral scales. However, the new species is easily distinguished from these species in having a bold black transverse band at midbody that extends ventrolaterally in adult males. Furthermore, S. carrioni, S. chlorostichus and S. euneptopsis differ from S. arndti (in parentheses) in having the dorsal scales of the neck keeled and imbricate (slightly keeled and subimbricate) and the dorsal scales of the trunk keeled (feebly keeled). Additionally, S. carrioni and S. euneptopsis have fewer scales at midbody (66–96, x=82.43 ± 8.13 in S. carrioni and 60–80, x=70.62±5.38 in S. euneptopsis, versus x=85–100, x=91.54 ± 6.32 in the new species), and S. chlorostichus has a strong sexual dichromatism, with the dorsal background color green in males and brown in females (males and females gray or brown). Stenocercus empetrus differs from S. arndti in having a venter of yellowish-orange with black reticulations (white, pale gray, or pale orange without reticulations), caudal scales without strongly projected mucrons (strongly projected mucrons present), and attaining a larger size, with a maximum SVL=103 mm in males and 90 mm in females (maximum SVL=90 mm in males and 77 mm in females). Stenocercus simonsii differs from S. arndti in having the dorsal scales of the neck almost coarsely granular, while in the new species these scales are slightly keeled and subimbricate. Stenocercus crassicaudatus and S. torquatus differ from the new species in having the dorsal scales of the neck granular (slightly keeled and subimbricate) and more scales around the midbody (97–121, x=108.87 ± 5.99 in S. crassicaudatus and 102–137, x=116.96 ± 8.21 in S. torquatus, versus 85–100, x=91.54 ± 6.32 in S. arndti). Moreover, S. torquatus differs from S. arndti in having a black antehumeral collar complete middorsally in adult males (incomplete), as well as two transverse bands anterior to the antehumeral collar (absent), and the ability to change color between emerald green and dark brown or gray (unable to change color). Stenocercus bolivarensis has strongly keeled and imbricate lateral body scales (Torres-Carvajal 2007b), which are smooth in the new species, and fewer scales around the midbody (67–82, x=73.08 ± 4.63 in S. bolivarensis, versus 85–100, x=91.54 ± 6.32 in S. arndti). 
EtymologyThe specific name is a patronym for Dr. Rudolf G. Arndt of Pomona, New Jersey, USA, in recognition of his financial support for the improvement of the herpetological collection of CORBIDI through the BIOPAT-Programme. 
  • Kwet, Axel 2014. Liste der im Jahr 2013 neu beschriebenen Reptilien. Terraria-Elaphe 2014 (3): 56-67 - get paper here
  • VENEGAS, PABLO J.; LOURDES Y. ECHEVARRIA & SILVANA C. ALVAREZ 2014. A new species of spiny-tailed iguanid lizard (Iguania: Stenocercus) from northwestern Peru. Zootaxa 3753 (1): 047–058 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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