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Stenocercus cadlei TORRES-CARVAJAL & MAFLA-ENDARA, 2013

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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymStenocercus cadlei TORRES-CARVAJAL & MAFLA-ENDARA 2013 
DistributionEcuador (elevations of 1,956–4,034 m in Provincias Can ̃ar, Cotopaxi, Tungurahua, and Chimborazo)

Type locality: 400 m on road Panamericana-Santa Lucía, 6 km N Mocha, 3,205 m (1.3668S, 78.6548W; WGS 84),  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: QCAZ 9898, an adult male, collected on 4 October 2009 by O. Torres- Carvajal, P. Mafla-Endara and S. Báez. Paratypes.—Ecuador: Provincia Can ̃ar: QCAZ 9637–9638, Can ̃ar, 3,209 m (2.5608S, 78.9318W), collected on 25 July 2009 by P. Mafla-Endara and A. Vargas; Provincia Chimborazo: QCAZ 9902, 1.5 km road to Columbe, 3,170 m (1.8848S, 78.7238W), collected on 4 October 2009 by O. Torres-Carvajal, P. Mafla-Endara and S. Ba ́ez; QCAZ 9903–9906, 11.3 km N Palmira on Panamerican road, 3,161 m (1.9818S, 78.7278W), collected on 5 October 2009 by O. Torres-Carvajal, P. Mafla- Endara and S. Ba ́ez; QCAZ 9613–9615, Riobamba, Pungala ́, Comunidad Mela ́n, 3,564 m (1.8758S, 78.5488W), collected on 2 August 2009 by S. Alda ́s-Alarco ́ n, A. Leo ́ n Huisha, and S. Sanaitan Huisha; QCAZ 9623–9625, Riobamba, Pungala ́, Co- munidad Mela ́n, 3,564 m (1.8758S, 78.5488W), collected on 4 August 2009 by S. Alda ́s-Alarco ́n, A. Leo ́n Huisha, and Segundo Sanaitan Huisha; QCAZ 9948–9950, 2.8 km S Tixa ́n on Panamerican road, 2,912 m (2.1758S, 78.8178W), collected on 15 October 2009 by O. Torres-Carvajal, P. Mafla-Endara, and S. Ba ́ ez; QCAZ 3659–3661, 14.5 km N Tixa ́ n, Panamerican road, 3,274 m (2.058S, 78.7338W), collected on 9 January 1997 by O. Torres-Carvajal; Provincia Cotopaxi: QCAZ 8772–8773, Apagua, 3,960 m (0.9748S, 78.9368W), collected on 7 March 2009 by F. Ayala-Varela, E. Carrillo-Ponce, and J. Garc ́ıa; QCAZ 8059, 2 km S Chugchila ́n, road to Quilotoa, 2,917 m (0.8068S, 78.9368W), collected on 4 April 2010 by P. Mafla-Endara, J. P. Almeida, O. Torres-Carvajal, and S. Ba ́ez; QCAZ 6951, 8019, 10658, Laguna e Yambo, 2,634 m (1.10178S, 78.58828W), collected on 8 March 2006 by I. G. Tapia; 24 November 2007 by O. Torres-Carvajal; and August 2010 by L. Duta ́n, P. Mafla-Endara, and J. P. Almeida, respectively; QCAZ 9640, Mulalo ́ , 3,029 m (0.7768S, 78.5788W), collected on 5 August 2009 by J. P. Almeida and P. Mafla-Endara; QCAZ 1109, Parque Nacional Cotopaxi, collected on 28 September 1991 by G. Onore and L. A. Coloma; QCAZ 6994, R ́ıo Barrancas, collected on 5 November 2003 by D. Alvarado S.; QCAZ 8055, San Juan de Pasto Calle, 1,956 m (0.7518S, 78.6488W), collected on 3 April 2010 by P. Mafla- Endara, J. P. Almeida, O. Torres-Carvajal, and S. Ba ́ ez; Provincia Tungurahua: QCAZ 10245–10246, Ambato, can ̃ o ́ n del R ́ıo Ambato, 2,488 m (1.2498S, 78.6068W), collected on 15 February 2010 by O. Torres-Carvajal and S. Ba ́ez; QCAZ 9188–9189, Ambato, road to P ́ıllaro, collected on 13 September 2007 by P. Gonza ́lez and A. Vallejo; QCAZ 10006–10007, 10009–10010, 10014–10015, 10017, 10019, Caser ́ıo Poatug, Sector Aya Samana, 2,573 m (1.2828S, 78.4918W), collected on 21 November 2009 by S. Alda ́s-Alarco ́ n and R. Toscano; QCAZ 9838, Cotalo ́ , road to Comunidad Mucub ́ı, 2,626 m (1.4298S, 78.5178W), collected on 20 September 2009 by A. Hurquizo, P. Mafla-Endara, and J. P. Almeida; QCAZ 9851, Patate, 2,215 m (1.3118S, 78.5148W), collected on 24 September 2009 by P. Mafla-Endara, M. Iglesias, and E. Endara; QCAZ 11016–11018, Road Guaranda-Ambato, 4,034 m (1.4168S, 78.8648W), collected on 13 October 2010 by P. A. Menendez; and QCAZ 2858, Urbina, 2,811 m (1.14338S, 78.55468W), collected on 8 January 1994 by L. A. Coloma and P. Moret. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Stenocercus cadlei differs from all other species of Stenocercus except S. angel, S. chota, S. festae, S. guentheri, and S. nigromaculatus by having imbricate scales on posterior surface of thighs, smooth ventrals in adults, a posthumeral mite pocket consisting of a shallow depression with a wide opening (more distinct in adult specimens), small scales in occipitoparietal region, and supraoculars of similar size. Of these species, S. nigromaculatus is unique in having an antehumeral fold. Stenocercus cadlei differs from S. angel, S. chota, and S. festae (character states of latter three species in parentheses) by having more scales around midbody, 62–83, mean = 71.55 +/- 4.86 (49– 68, mean = 56.09 +/- 3.71; 45–59, mean = 50.93 +/- 2.96; 47–66, mean = 55.91 6 4.85, respectively). Some males of S. festae (66%) and S. guentheri (53%) have a distinct, sometimes medially incomplete, transverse black band on ventral surface of neck; males of the new species lack this band (Fig. 1). Both S. guentheri and the new species differ from S. festae (character states in parentheses) in having smooth or weakly keeled ventrals in juveniles (distinctly keeled), and in lacking a black antehumeral patch in adult males (patch present). Adult males of S. cadlei also differ from adult males of S. festae and S. guentheri in having scattered dark flecks on the venter. Furthermore, some adult females of the new species have a bright yellow patch with a dark reticulation on the pectoral region; females of S. festae and S. guentheri lack this pattern and usually have uniformly colored venters.
Of eight scale count variables recorded in both S. cadlei and S. guentheri (Table 2), only two were normally distributed and subsequently used in t-tests. Stenocercus cadlei has fewer paravertebrals (t = -7.698, df = 101, P < 0.001) and more scales around midbody (t = 4.666, df = 101, P < 0.001) than S. guentheri. 
EtymologyThe specific name is a noun in the genitive case and is a patronym for John E. Cadle, who has published important contributions to the systematics of Stenocercus (Cadle, 1991, 1998, 2001). Cadle also made important specimen and tissue collections of Stenocercus from Peru, and these collections have been used in several systematic studies of these lizards. 
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, Omar and Paola Mafla-Endara 2013. A New Cryptic Species of Stenocercus (Squamata: Iguanidae) from the Andes of Ecuador. Journal of Herpetology Mar 2013, Vol. 47, No. 1: 184-190. - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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