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Stenocercus squarrosus NOGUEIRA & RODRIGUES, 2006

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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymStenocercus squarrosus NOGUEIRA & RODRIGUES 2006
Stenocercus squarrosus — TORRES-CARVAJAL 2007 
DistributionBrazil (Piauí, S Ceará)

Type locality: ”Chapada dos Gerais”, a sandstone plateau in Parque Nacional Serra das Confusões, (9°13’S; 43°29’W), Piauí state.  
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 94056, field number MRT 08106, adult male collected by H. Zaher and F. Curcio in January 2002 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Stenocercus squarrosus sp. nov. is distinguished from all other Stenocercus, except S. tricristatus, S. dumerilii, and S. quinarius by the presence of the following characters (adapted from Ávila-Pires, 1995): head pyramidal, enlarged prominent post-supraciliary scales continuous to a dis- tinct crest formed by supraciliaries and canthals. Supraoculars not enlarged. One elongate subocular. Interparietal small, parietal eye distinct. Gular or neck folds absent, sides of neck with large, imbricate scales. Vertebral and dorsolateral crests present. Dorsals, laterals and ventrals relatively large, imbricate, keeled, sometimes mucronate. Mite pockets absent.

From S. tricristatus (characters in parentheses) it is distinguished based on the shorter tail, 0.8-0.9 times SVL (1.7 times SVL), 46-53 midbody scales (33), 13- 15 scales from one dorsolateral crest to the other (8), five prominent, dorsolateral crests: one vertebral, two dorsolateral and two lateral (lateral crests undistinguishable), body depressed (body laterally compressed), tail depressed near the base (compressed near the base) and uniform, light brown dorsal pattern, with transverse dark brown markings in juveniles and some adult specimens (banded dorsal pattern).
From S. dumerilii (characters in parentheses, from Ávila-Pires, 1995 and 15 examined specimens) it differs by showing 46-53 midbody scales (41-50); shorter tail, 0.8-0.9 times SVL (1.2-1.4); 3-5, mostly five, internasals (2-3); rostral roughly three times as wide as high (approximately four times as wide as high); smaller adult size; dorsal scales keeled throughout the lenght of the scale (keel restricted to or more prominent on the distal part of dorsals); dorsals generally with a small mucron (most non-mucronate); 42-52 caudal scale rows (64-74); all five dorsal crests prominent, serrated (dorsal crests low, lateral crests poorly distinguishable in some specimens), body depressed (body slightly depressed), tail eliptical in cross section (round in cross section).
From S. quinarius sp. nov. (characters in parentheses) it differs by having a shorter tail, 0.8-0.9 times SVL (1.0-1.1); rostral roughly three times as wide as high (approximately twice as wide as high); 42-52 caudal scale rows (56-62); all five dorsal crests prominent, serrated (dorsal crests low), body depressed (body slightly depressed), tail elliptical in cross section (round in cross section), anterior canthal ridge single (double canthal ridge), anterior canthal longer than posterior (shorter), contacting post-rostrals (not contacting post-rostrals).

Color in life: Dorsal ground color uniform tan, dorsal part of head same color as dorsum. Gular and ventral region slightly lighter, uniform light brown. Tail region with slightly darker flecks of reddish brown, alternating with lighter areas. A dark brown ocular stripe is visible from the orbit to comissure of mouth. On the photographed specimen, four dark brown transversal chevrons are present on the dorsum, along the vertebral row of enlarged, erected scales, being absent on the holotype. A distinct horizontally elongated black spot just above and anterior to insertion of forelimbs. 
CommentSimilar species: Stenocercus dumerilii, S. tricristatus, S.quinarius, and S. squarrosus share combined morphological features (three or five dorsal crests, enlarged post-supraciliary scale, head blunt, pyramidal, bordered by supraciliary crests) unseen in the remainder of the genus (see Avila-Pires 1995, Nogueira & Rodrigues 2006).

Distribution: Map: see TEIXEIRA et al. 2015: 417. 
Etymology“squarrosus”, Latin, rough, with stiff, erected scales. In allusion to the prominent, serrate dorsal crests. 
  • Avila-Pires TCS, Nogueira CC, Martins M 2019. A new ‘horned' Stenocercus from the highlands of southeastern Brazil, and redescription of Stenocercus tricristatus (Reptilia: Tropiduridae). Zoologia 36: 1-16 - get paper here
  • Carranza, S.; E. N. Arnold & F. Amat 2004. DNA phylogeny of Lacerta (Iberolacerta) and other lacertine lizards (Reptilia: Lacertidae): did competition cause long-term mountain restriction? Systematics and Biodiversity 2 (1): 57-77 - get paper here
  • Cavalcanti, L.B.Q.; T.B. Costa; G.R. Colli; G.C. Costa; F.G.R. França; D.O. Mesquita; C.K.S. Palmeira; N. Pelegrin; A.H.B. Soares; D.B. Tucker; A.A. Garda 2014. Herpetofauna of protected areas in the Caatinga II: Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí, Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 18-27 - get paper here
  • Madella-Auricchio, Cláudia Renata; Paulo Auricchio Enio Saraiva Soares 2017. Reptile species composition in the Middle Gurguéia and comparison with inventories in the eastern Parnaíba River Basin, State of Piauí, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 57(28): 375-386, - get paper here
  • Magalhaes, A. J. C., Jr., A. F. A. De Andrade, G. J. B. Moura, L. B. Riveiro and S. M. De Azevedo, Jr. 2016. New records and ecological niche model of the endemic Caatinga Lizard Stenocercus squarrosus Nogueira and Rodrigues, 2006. Herpetological Review 47(3): 380-384. - get paper here
  • NOGUEIRA, C. & RODRIGUES, M.T. 2006. The genus Stenocercus (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in extra-Amazonian Brazil, with the description of two new species. South American J. Herp. 1 (3): 149-165 - get paper here
  • Teixeira, Mauro; Ivan Prates, Carolina Nisa, Nathalia Suzan Camarão Silva-Martins, Christine Strüssmann, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues 2015. Molecular data reveal spatial and temporal patterns of diversification and a cryptic new species of lowland Stenocercus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 (Squamata: Tropiduridae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94: 410-423 (2016), doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.09.010 - get paper here
  • Uchôa LR, Delfim FR, Mesquita DO, Colli GR, Garda AA, Guedes TB 2022. Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Caatinga, northeastern Brazil: Detailed and updated overview. Vertebrate Zoology 72: 599-659 - get paper here
  • Vechio, Francisco Dal; Mauro Teixeira Jr., Renato Sousa Recoder, Miguel Trefault Rodrigues & Hussam Zaher 2016. The herpetofauna of Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões, state of Piauí, Brazil, with a regional species list from an ecotonal area of Cerrado and Caatinga. Biota Neotropica 16(3): e20150105 - get paper here
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