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Strobilurus torquatus WIEGMANN, 1834

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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesPortuguese: Lagarto-de-Cauda-Espinhosa, Lagartixa 
SynonymStrobilurus torquatus WIEGMANN 1834
Doryphorus spinosus — GUICHENOT 1855
Strobilurus torquatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 354
Strobilurus torquatus — BOULENGER 1885: 181
Strobilurus torquatus — BOULENGER 1888: 40
Strobilurus torquatus — ETHERIDGE 1968
Tropidurus strobilurus — FROST 1992
Tropidurus strobilurus — HARVEY GUTBERLET 2000
Strobilurus torquatus — FROST et al. 2001 
DistributionE/S Brazil (atlantic forests, Pernambuco, Ceará, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Sergipe)

Type locality: Brazil  
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 672, 673 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS (genus): Following Etheridge (1968), Frost et al. (2001b), and Carvalho et al. (202X). (1) head not relatively small, body and tail not compressed latero-laterally; (2) body not extremely flattened dorso-ventrally; (3) skull not highly elevated at the level of the orbits; (4) premaxilla broad; (5) nutritive foramina of maxilla striking enlarged; (6) lingual process of dentary present, extending over lingual dentary process of coronoid; (7) angular strongly reduced; (8) medial centrale absent; (9) sternal fontanelle present; (10) circumorbitals distinct from other small supraorbital scales; (11) orbit underlain by at least three scales caused by fragmentation of preocular–subocular series; (12) poorly defined or absent postmental scale series; (13) antegular fold absent; (14) projecting tufts of elongate, spiny scales on the neck absent; (15) dark-banded, green dorsal background; (16) dorsals keeled and shortly mucronate, ventrals smooth, about one and a half times as large as dorsals; (17) enlarged middorsal scale row forming a serrate dorsal crest; (18) yellow “flash” marks on posteriormost region of the abdomen, pre-cloacal region, underneath thighs of males; (19) tail autotomic, terete but heavily mucronate, about as long as SVL, and with unequal whorls of spinose scales; (20) fourth finger longer than third; (21) lateral fringe not developed on both sides of fourth toes; (22) hemipenes attenuate, without apical disks; (23) arboreal (modified by O. Torres-Carvajal, pers. comm. 2021). 
CommentFrost (1992) proposed the name Tropidurus strobilurus for Strobilurus torquatus WIEGMANN 1834, since the combination Tropidurus torquatus is already preoccupied. Frost (2001) resurrected Strobilurus again.

Type species: Strobilurus torquatus WIEGMANN 1834 is the type species of the genus Strobilurus WIEGMANN 1834. See Frost 2001 for a new diagnosis of the genus.

Habitat: closed-canopy forest, arboreal

Young specimens have a greenish color and the adults are grayed out and the tail with thorns.

Synonymy partly after Peters et al. 1970. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin torquatus, "adorned with a necklace or collar", refers to the conspicuous, light-bordered black collar in these lizards. 
  • ANDRADE LIMA, J.H., DIAS, E.G., COSTA, R.D.L., SILVA, F.J., LIMA, E.S.M., SANTOS, E.M., KOKUBUM, M.N.C. 2021. Lizards and snakes of Refúgio de Vida Silvestre Matas do Siriji, an Atlantic Forest hotspot of the Pernambuco Endemism Center, Northeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica 21 (2): e20201106 - get paper here
  • Bezerra, P. E. S., Santana, F. M., & de Moura, G. J. B. 2021. Sustainability assessment of a lizard assemblage in Pernambuco state, Brazil. Journal for Nature Conservation, 125957
  • Borges-Nojosa, D. M. & Caramaschi, U. 2003. Composição e análise comparativa da diversidade e das afinidades biogeográficas dos lagartos e anfisbenídeos (Squamata) dos brejos nordestinos. In: I.R. Leal, M. Tabarelli & J.M.C. Silva (eds.). Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga, pp. 181-236. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil.
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1888. On some reptiles and batrachians from Iguarasse, Pernambuco. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 2: 40—43 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Dubeux, M. J. M., Araújo Neto, J. V. D., Triburcio, I. C. S., Lisboa, B. S., Torquato, S., Freitas, M. A. D., ... & Mott, T. 2022. A “hotspot” within a hotspot: the reptiles of the Estação Ecológica and Área de Proteção Ambiental de Murici, Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 22: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Etheridge, Richard 1968. A review of the iguanid lizard genera Uracentron and Strobilurus. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology 17 (2): 47-64 - get paper here
  • Fonseca, É., Tinõco, M. S., Marques, R., Browne-Ribeiro, H. C. & Fazolato, C. P. 2012. Geographic distribution: Strobilurus torquatus (Amazon lava lizard). Herpetological Review 43: 446 - get paper here
  • Franzini, Lissa Dellefrate; Izabel Regina Soares Silva, Daniel Oliveira Santana, Fagner Ribeiro Delfim, Gustavo Henrique Calazans Vieira, Daniel Oliveira Mesquita 2019. Lizards fauna from the state of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil: current knowledge and sampling discontinuities. Herpetology Notes 12: 749-763 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco A. de; Marcos J.M. Dubeux, Márcio F. Chaves, Bruno F. Fiorillo, Gentil A.P. Filho, Washington L.S. Vieira, and Geraldo J.B. de Moura 2023. Herpetofauna in three highland Atlantic Forest remnants in northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 16: 377-390
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de 2014. Squamate reptiles of the Atlantic Forest of northern Bahia, Brazil. Check List 10 (5): 1020-1030 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Thais Figueiredo Santos Silva, Patrícia Mendes Fonseca, Breno Hamdan, Thiago Filadelfo 2019. Herpetofauna of Serra do Timbó, an Atlantic Forest remnant in the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 12: 245-260 - get paper here
  • Frost, Darrel R. 1992. Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomy of the Tropidurus group of lizards (Iguania: Tropidurudae). American Museum Novitates (3033): 1-68 - get paper here
  • Frost, Darrel R., Miguel T. Rodrigues, Taran Grant, and Tom A. Titus 2001. Phylogenetics of the Lizard Genus Tropidurus (Squamata: Tropiduridae: Tropidurinae): Direct Optimization, Descriptive Efficiency, and Sensitivity Analysis of Congruence Between Molecular Data and Morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 21 (3): 352–371 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Guichenot, A. 1855. Animaux nouveaux ou rares recueillis pendant l’Expédition dans les parties centrales de l’Amérique du Sud, de Rio de Janeiro a Lima, et de Lima au Para; Exécutée par ordre du Gouvernement Francais pendant les années 1843 a 1847, sous la direction du P. Bertrand, Paris. - get paper here
  • HARVEY, Michael B. & RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR 2000. A phylogenetic analysis of the tropidurine lizards (Squamata: Tropiduridae), including new characters of squamation and epidermal microstructure. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 128: 189–233. - get paper here
  • Melo, Íris Virgínea; Geraldo Jorge Barbosa de Moura, Marco Antonio de Freitas, Edson Victor Euclides de Andrade, Cláudio Casal, Arthur Diesel Abegg, Marcelo Nogueira de Carvalho Kakubum 2018. New additions to herpetofauna of the Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos, an urban Atlantic Rainforest Fragment, Recife municipality, Pernambuco state, northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 245-254 - get paper here
  • OLIVEIRA LIMA, JEFFERSON; HUGO ANDRADE, TAINARA LIMA DA SILVA & EDUARDO JOSÉ DOS REIS DIAS. 2022. Reptiles of Sergipe: current knowledge and sampling discontinuities. Herpetology Notes 15: 69–78. - get paper here
  • Oliveira, Jane C.F.; Rodrigo Castellari Gonzalez; Paulo Passos; Davor Vrcibradic & Carlos Frederico Duarte Rocha 2020. Non-Avian Reptiles of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: status of knowledge and commented list. Pap. Avulsos Zool. 60: e20206024 - get paper here
  • OLIVEIRA, P.M.A., MELLO, A.V.A., DUBEUX, M.J.M., OLIVEIRA, S.B.A., LOURENÇO, G.F., NUNES, P.M.S. 2021. Herpetofauna of Matas de Água Azul, an Atlantic Forest remnant in Serra do Mascarenhas, Pernambuco state, Brazil. Biota Neotropica 21 (2): e20201063 - get paper here
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  • Roberto, Igor Joventino; Cícero Ricardo de Oliveira, João Antonio de Araújo Filho, Herivelto Faustino de Oliveira, Robson Waldemar Ávila 2017. The herpetofauna of the Serra do Urubu mountain range: a key biodiversity area for conservation in the brazilian atlantic forest. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 57 (27): 347-373 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, K.C.; F.R. Delfim; C.S.S. Castro; F.G.R. França; E. Leite Filho; D.O. Mesquita; F.A. Oliveira; A.C.A. Santos; S.F. Ferrari; M.M. Valença-Montenegro. 2013. Strobilurus torquatus Wiegmann, 1834 (Squamata: Tropiduridae): New records from the Brazilian state of Paraíba and a geographic distribution map. Check List 9 (3):614-617 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, M. T.;Yonenaga-Yassuda, Y.;Kasahara, S. 1989. Notes on the ecology and karyotypic description of Strobilurus torquatus (Sauria,Iguanidae). Rev. Brasil. Genet. 12 (4): 747-759 - get paper here
  • Silva, Tainara Lima da; Maria Aldenise Xavier, Gabriel Deyvison dos Santos Carvalho, Luciano Alves dos Anjos, Ingrid Benevides Machado, Eduardo José dos Reis Dias 2021. Parasites of the lizard Strobilurus torquatus Wiegmann, 1834 in Northeastern Brazil (Squamata: Tropiduridae). Herpetology Notes 14: 769-771 - get paper here
  • Uchôa LR, Delfim FR, Mesquita DO, Colli GR, Garda AA, Guedes TB 2022. Lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Caatinga, northeastern Brazil: Detailed and updated overview. Vertebrate Zoology 72: 599-659 - get paper here
  • Vanzolini, P.E. 1974. Ecological and geographical distribution of lizards in Pernambuco, northeastern Brasil (Sauria). Papeis Avulsos de Zool. 28(4): 61-90. - get paper here
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  • Zerbini, Glaucia Jordπo;da Costa, Elisabeth M. M.;Araujo, Alexandre F. B.;Brandπo, Reubera A. 1998. Geographic Distribution. Tropidurus strobilurus. Herpetological Review 29 (2): 111 - get paper here
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