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Teira dugesii (MILNE-EDWARDS, 1829)

IUCN Red List - Teira dugesii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Lacertinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesTeira dugesii dugesii (MILNE-EDWARDS 1829)
Teira dugesii selvagensis (BISCHOFF, OSENEGG & MAYER 1989)
Teira dugesii jogeri (BISCHOFF, OSENEGG & MAYER 1989)
Teira dugesii mauli (MERTENS 1938) 
Common NamesE: Madeira Wall Lizard
G: Madeira-Mauereidechse 
SynonymLacerta dugesii MILNE-EDWARDS 1829: 71, 84
Lacerta Dugesii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 236
Lacerta dugesii — BOULENGER 1887: 35
Lacerta dugesii — BOULENGER 1920: 327
Lacerta dugesii — WELCH 1982
Podarcis dugesii — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Teira dugesii — MAYER & BISCHOFF 1996: 169
Teira dugesii — WAGNER 2002
Lacerta dugesii — BREHM et al. 2001
Lacerta dugesii — BREHM et al. 2003
Teira dugesii — MENDES et al. 2016

Teira dugesii jogeri (BISCHOFF, OSENEGG & MAYER 1989)
Podarcis dugesii jogeri — MALKMUS 1995
Teira dugesii jogeri — GLADE 2009
Lacerta (Teira) dugesii jogeri — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008

Teira dugesii mauli (MERTENS 1938)
Lacerta dugesii mauli MERTENS 1938
Podarcis dugesii mauli — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994: 36
Lacerta dugesii mauli — BREHM et al. 2003

Teira dugesii selvagensis (BISCHOFF, OSENEGG & MAYER 1989)
Podarcis dugesii selvagensis — MALKMUS 1995
Lacerta (Teira) dugesii selvagensis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008 
DistributionMadeira, Desertas Islands and (introduced) in some Azore Islands, Portugal (harbour area of Lisbon), Porto Santo Island, Salvagens Islands

selvagensis: Selvagem Grande (= Ilhas Selvagens), Madeira

jogeri: Porto Santo Island, Madeira

mauli: Desertas Island, Madeira; Type locality: Deserta Grande, Madeira.

Type locality: Madeira  
TypesHolotype: unlocated
Holotype: ZFMK 44193, paratypes in ZFMK, SMF and BMNH [jogeri]
Holotype: ZFMK 41561, paratypes in ZFMK, SMF and BMNH [selvagensis]
Holotype: SMF 25001; paratype in NMW [mauli] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Lizards possessing the following features found only in a minority of other Lacertini: lateral arms of interclavicle directed obliquely backwards, outer edge of parietal scale reaching lateral border of parietal table both posteriorly and anteriorly, usually five upper labial scales in front of subocular, preanal scale bordered by one or two semicircles of smaller scales, some sexual dimorphism in colouring, broad pale dorso-lateral stripes frequent in dorsal pattern, hemipenial microornamentation of hook-like spines, which may have slender projections at their tips. Other more widely distributed features include head and body not strongly depressed, frequently nine premaxillary teeth in adults, supraocular osteoderms fenestrated in some adult females, usual number of presacral vertebrae 26 in males, inscriptional ribs absent in most cases, tail not brightly coloured in hatchlings (from Arnold et al. 2007: 58). 
CommentDistribution: Reported from Cameroon by Angel 1940 (probably in error). Illustrated in Reptilia 9 (3): 11.

Subspecies: Morphological variation of the proposed three L. dugesii subspecies is not congruent with the allozyme analysis. This most probably suggests a rapid colonization of the islands followed by a strong effect of selection operating over the morphological characters used to define the subspecies [Brehm et al. 2001]. T. d. mauli is a melanistic form of T. dugesii but clearly separated genetically from the other subspecies. While BIFSCHOFF et al. 1989 suggested to synonymize it with dugesii, BREHM et al. 2003 suggested a revalidation.

The closest extant relative of T. dugesii is Lacerta perspicillata.

Type Species: Teira punctata Gray, 1838 [= Teira dugesii (Milne-Edwards, 1829)] is the type species of the genus Teira GRAY 1838. 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Antoine Louis Duges (1797-1838), a French physician. 
  • Angel, F. 1940. Reptiles et Amphibiens recueillis au Cameroun par la mission P. Lepesme, R. Paulian et A. Villirs. Bull. Mus. natl. Hist. nat. Paris 12: 390-399 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bischoff, W., Osenegg, K., and Mayer, W. 1989. Untersuchungen zur subspezifischen Gliederung der Madeira-Mauereidechse, Podarcis dugesii (Milne-Edwards, 1829). Salamandra 25 (3-4): 237-259 - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • BOSCH, H.A.J. IN DEN 1991. Farbänderung bei einer schwarzen Podarcis dugesii. Die Eidechse 2 (4): 15-16 - get paper here
  • BOSCH, H.A.J. IN DEN 1992. Farbänderung bei einer schwarzen Podarcis dugesii (Fortsetzung). Die Eidechse 3 (7): 21-23 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1887. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, Anelytropsidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. London: 575 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1920. Monograph of the Lacertidae, vol. 1. British Museum (London) - get paper here
  • Brehm A, J. Jesus, H. Spínola, C. Alves, L. Vicente and D. J. Harris 2003. Phylogeography of the Madeiran endemic lizard Lacerta dugesii inferred from mtDNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 26 (2): 222-230 - get paper here
  • Brehm, A.; Khadem, M.; Jesus, J.; Andrade, P.; Vicente, L. 2001. Lack of congruence between morphometric evolution and genetic differentiation suggests a recent dispersal and local habitat adaptation of the Madeiran lizard Lacerta dugesii. Genet Sel Evol 33(6):671-685 - get paper here
  • Brehm, António; D. James Harris; Cíntia Alves; José Jesus; Fabienne Thomarat & Luís Vicente 2003. Structure and Evolution of the Mitochondrial DNA Complete Control Region in the Lizard Lacerta dugesii (Lacertidae, Sauria). J Mol Evol 56: 46–53 - get paper here
  • Brown, R. P., Sun, H., Jin, Y., & Meloro, C. 2023. Habitat-associated genomic variation in a wall lizard from an oceanic island. Genome Biology and Evolution, evad193
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Engelmann, W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Glade, U. 2009. Die Herpetofauna von Porto Santo (Madeira). Elaphe 17 (3): 58-61
  • Grossmann, W. 2005. Beobachtungen an Jogers Maghreb-Eidechse, Teira dugesii jogeri (BISCHOFF, OSENEGG & MAYER 1989). Sauria 27 (4): 27-39 - get paper here
  • Jesus, J.; Sampaio, L. & Crespo, E. 2006. High frequency of lack of occipital scale in madeiran lizard Lacerta dugesii Milne - Edwards, 1829 (Sauria, Lacertidae), on a very small island, Selvagem Pequena (Selvagens, Portugal). Bol. Asoc. Herpetol. Esp. (2006) 17 (2): 88-93 - get paper here
  • Jesus, J.; Sampaio, L.M. & Silva, L.C. 2005. Incidence of Lacerta dugesii Milne-Edwards, 1829 (Sauria: Lacertidae) in the diet of kestrels (Falco tinnunculus canariensis Koenig, 1889; Aves, Falconidae) in a semiarid zone of Madeira. Herpetological Bulletin (93): 14-16 - get paper here
  • Jesus, José 2012. Evidence of high longevity in an Island lacertid, Teira dugesii (Milne-Edwards, 1829). First data on wild specimens. Acta Herpetologica 7 (2): 309-313 - get paper here
  • Jesus, José, António Brehm and James D. Harris 2005. Is C-mos phylogenetically informative at lower taxonomic levels in reptiles? An assessment of variation within Lacerta (Teira) dugesii Milne-Edwards, 1829 (Squamata: Sauria: Lacertidae). Herpetozoa 18 (1-2):55-59. - get paper here
  • Koleska, D., et al. 2017. Teira dugesii (Madeiran Wall Lizard) Tail bifurcation. Herpetological Review 48 (2): 440-441 - get paper here
  • Koleska, Daniel; Vladimir Vrabec & Martin Kulma 2017. Teira dugesii (Sauria: Lacertidae) – high aggregation. Herpetological Bulletin (139): - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
  • Malkmus, R. 1995. Die Amphibien und Reptilien Portugals, Madeiras und der Azoren. Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei, Bd. 621. Westarp Wissenschaften (Magdeburg)/Spektrum Akademischer Verlag (Heidelberg)
  • MALKMUS, R. 1996. Die "Feet-up"Stellung bei Teira dugesii (MILNE-EDWARDS, 1829) während des Sonnenbadens. Die Eidechse 7 (18): 22-24 - get paper here
  • MALKMUS, R. 2009. Einige Bemerkungen zur Verbreitung von Teira dugesii auf Madeira. Die Eidechse 20 (1): 13-20. - get paper here
  • Malkmus, Rudolf 1995. Habitatwahl von Podarcis dugesii (Milne-Edwards, 1829) in Ost-Madeira (Squamata: Sauria: Lacertidae). Herpetozoa 8 (1/2): 85-88 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, Rudolf 2003. Daten zur Winteraktivität portugesischer Echsen (Sauria). Die Eidechse 14 (2) - get paper here
  • MARGRY, KEES (C.J.P.J.) & WIJNAND R.B. HEITMANS 2021. Exceptional longevity of a male Madeira rock lizard Teira dugesii maintained in captivity for 41 years. The Herpetological Bulletin (155) - get paper here
  • Matias, R., R. Rebelo, J. P. Granadeiro & P. Catry 2009. Predation by Madeiran Wall Lizards Teira dugesii on Cory's Shearwater Calonectris diomedea hatchlings at Selvagem Grande, North Atlantic. Waterbirds 32: 600-603 - get paper here
  • Mayer, W., and Bischoff, W. 1996. Beiträge zur taxonomischen Revision der Gattung Lacerta (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Teil 1: Zootoca, Omanosaura, Timon und Teira als eigenständige Gattungen. Salamandra 32 (3): 163-170 - get paper here
  • Mendes, Joana; D. James Harris, Salvador Carranza, Daniele Salvi 2016. Evaluating the phylogenetic signal limit from mitogenomes, slow evolving nuclear genes, and the concatenation approach. New insights into the Lacertini radiation using fast evolving nuclear genes and species trees. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 100: 254–267, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.016 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1938. Eine melanistische Rasse der Madeira-Eidechse. Senckenbergiana 20 (3/4): 287-290
  • Milne-Edwards, M.H. 1829. Recherches zoologiques pour servir à l'histoire des lézards, extraites d'une monographie de ce genre. Ann. Sci. Nat. Paris 16: 50-89 - get paper here
  • Richter, K. 1979. Lacerta dugesii Milne-Edwards, 1829 und Lacerta perspicillata Dumeril et Bibron, 1839 gehören zur Gattung Podarcis Wagler, Subgenus Teira Gray, 1838 (Reptilia, Lacertidae). Zool. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 36: 1-9.
  • Richter, K. 1986. Podarcis dugesii (Milne-Edwards, 1829) - Madeira Mauereidechse. In: Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Edited by W. Böhme. Vol. 2, Echsen III (Podarcis). Aula Verlag, Wiesbaden. pp. 388-398.
  • Rocha, Ricardo; Maurício Paixão and Ricardo Gouveia. 2010. Predation note: Anthus berthelotii madeirensis (Passeriformes: Motacillidae) catches Teira dugesii mauli (Squamata: Lacertidae) in Deserta Grande, Madeira Archipelago. Herpetology Notes 3: 77-78.
  • Sá-Sousa, Paulo 1995. The introduced Madeiran lizard, Lacerta (Teira) dugesii in Lisbon. Amphibia-Reptilia 16 (2): 211-214 - get paper here
  • Silva-Rocha, Iolanda; Paulo Sá-Sousa, Beatriz Fariña & Miguel A. Carretero 2016. Molecular analysis confirms Madeira as source for insular and continental introduced populations of Teira dugesii (Sauria: Lacertidae). Salamandra 52 (3): 269–272 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Tiedemann,F.; Häupl,M. & Grillitsch,H. 1994. Katalog der Typen der herpetologischen Sammlung nach dem Stand vom 1. Jänner 1994. Teil II: Reptilia. Kat. wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 10 (Vertebrata 4): 1-110
  • Wagner, P.R. 2002. Die Echsen der Ilhas Selvagens - einer vergessenen kleinen makaronesischen Inselgruppe. Elaphe 10 (1): 61-67
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  • ZAWADZKI, M. 2018. Beobachtungen zum Farbwechsel bei Teira dugesii dugesii (MILNE-EDWARDS, 1829). Die Eidechse 29 (1): 28-30 - get paper here
  • Zeeb, S. 2006. Begegnungen mit Teira dugesii (Milne-Edwards, 1829) auf Madeira Die Eidechse 17(1): 1-7. - get paper here
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