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Terrapene carolina (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Terrapene carolina - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaEmydidae, Emydinae, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesTerrapene carolina bauri TAYLOR 1894
Terrapene carolina carolina (LINNAEUS 1758)
Terrapene carolina major (AGASSIZ 1857) 
Common Namesbauri: Florida Box Turtle
carolina: Eastern Box Turtle
major: Gulf Coast Box Turtle
E: Three-toed box turtle
G: Carolina-Dosenschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo carolina LINNAEUS 1758: 198
Testudo caroliniana DAUDIN 1802 (ex errore)
Terrapene carolina — BELL 1825
Emys tritentaculata ST. HILAIRE 1829 (nomen nudum) in CUVIER
Testudo irregulata DAUDIN 1831 (nomen nudum) in GRAY in GRIFFITH
Cistudo carolina — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 210
Cistudo Carolina — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 224
Cistudo carolina — GRAY 1864: 106
Cistudo carolina — BOULENGER 1889
Terrapene carolina — KÖHLER 2000: 23

Terrapene carolina carolina (LINNAEUS 1758)
Testudo carinata LINNAEUS 1758: 198
Testudo brevi-caudata LACÉPÈDE 1788 (nom. subst. pro T. carol. LINNAEUS)
Testudo incarcerata BONNATERRE 1789
Testudo incarcerato-striata BONNATERRE 1789
Testudo clausa GMELIN 1789
Testudo virgulata LATREILLE 1801
Emys schneideri SCHWEIGGER 1812
Monoclida kentukensis RAFINESQUE 1822
Cistuda clausa — SAY 1824: 205
Terrapene maculata BELL 1825
Terrapene nebulosa BELL 1825
Emys kinosternoides GRAY 1831: 32
Emys Cinosternoides — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 303
Cistudo virginea AGASSIZ 1857: 445
Cistudo eurypygia COPE 1870:124
Cistudo carolina var. cinosternoides — BOULENGER 1889
Cistudo carolina — BOULENGER 1895: 331
Cistudo cinosternoides — BOULENGER 1895: 331
Terrapene carolina carolina — STEJNEGER & BARBOUR 1917
Terrapene carolina carolina — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 52
Terrapene carolina carolina — CROTHER 2000
Terrapene carolina carolina — RHODIN et al. 2010

Terrapene carolina bauri TAYLOR 1894
Terrapene bauri TAYLOR 1895
Terrapene carolina bauri — CARR 1940
Terrapene carolina bauri — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 53
Terrapene carolina bauri — CROTHER 2000
Terrapene carolina bauri — RHODIN et al. 2010
Terrapene baurii — CROTHER et al. 2012
Terrapene carolina bauri — TTWG 2012

Terrapene carolina major (AGASSIZ 1857)
Cistudo major AGASSIZ 1857
Cistudo carolina var. major — BOULENGER 1889
Cistudo major — BOULENGER 1895: 330
Terrapene major — ALLEN 1932
Terrapene carolina major — CARR 1940
Terrapene carolina major — CROTHER 2000
Terrapene carolina major — RHODIN et al. 2010 
DistributionUSA (S Maine, S New Hampshire, SE New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, Arkansas, S Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, E Kansas, E Oklahoma, C/E Texas)
Mexico (Campeche, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan)

Has been introduced to the Mariana Islands (Guam) in the Pacific Ocean (LEVER 2003): 21).

bauri: Florida; Type locality: “Florida;” restricted to “Orlando, Florida” [Orange County] by Schmidt (1953:94).

carolina: Canada (S Ontario), Mexico (Campeche, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán), USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michi- gan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia)

major: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas)

Type locality: “Carolina”

Elevation: 0-1663 m (Chan et al. 2016) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproduction 
TypesSyntype: MCZ R-184564
Syntypes: USNM 86871 (formerly MCZ 1519) (alcoholic adult female, CL 119 mm), New Orleans, Louisiana, collected by N. B. Benedict, date unknown, cataloged 6 Dec 1932 (see also Reynolds et al. 2007); USNM 86872 (formerly MCZ 1519) (alcoholic adult female, CL 114 mm), locality, collector, and catalog date as for USNM 86871 (see Reynolds et al. 2007) [triunguis]
Syntypes: MCZ 1519, 1522–1525 [triunguis]
Holotype: USNM 8352 (alcoholic adult female, CL 137 mm), collected by F. B. Meek, 1875. Syntype: MCZ R-1508 [bauri] 
CommentSubspecies: following Martin et al. (2013) who removed Terrapene carolina triunguis (AGASSIZ 1857), T. c. mexicana (GRAY 1849), and T. c. yucatana (BOULENGER 1895) and assign them to T. mexicana.

Hybridization: Terrapene carolina triunguis (AGASSIZ 1857) and Terrapene ornata ornata (AGASSIZ 1857) may hybridize in Texas (Lutterschmidt et al. 2007). Butler et al. (2011) showed that T. c. major does not possess a diagnosable morphology and provide evidence that major resulted from introgression between eastern extant (predominantly T. c. carolina) and an extinct subspecies, T. c. putnami. Hybridization of the box turtles Terrapene carolina and T. ornata has been reported throughout their sympatric range (Cureton et al. 2011).

Distribution: for a range map of carolina, bauri, major, triunguis, ornata, and luteola, see Martin et al. 2013. Not listed for San Luis Potosí by Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013.

Type species: Testudo clausa GMELIN 1789 is the type species of the genus Terrapene MERREM 1820 (STEJNEGER 1902). 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): A number of references (Nason 1866; Gotch 1986; Ernst and McBreen 1991) state that terrapin or Terrapene is derived from an American Indian or Canadian Indian Algonquin word (Algonquins were First Nations peoples of Ontario and Québec, but also included people ranging south to Virginia). However, the words mikinák (general name for tortoise or turtle) and posikato (land turtle) are Eastern Algonquin words for turtles, which obviously bear no resemblance to terrapin. According to Siebert (1975), the word terrapin was derived from the Powhatan word “torope”, Eastern Algonquin for a variety of turtle, or derivatives thereof. Later derivations were provided by Beverley (1705: 14, as tarapin), Lawson (1709: 133, as terebins, of which he noted both land and water types), and Brickell (1737: plate after p. 134 and pp. 138–139, as terebin). Thus, it is likely that the word torope was incorporated into English by early New World Virginia colonists to mean a turtle, or more specifically, a land turtle. See Dodd et al. 2016 for more details.

Etymology: named after its occurence in the “Carolinas”, North and South Carolina.

Etymology [bauri]: The name bauri is a patronym honoring Dr. Georg Baur, “who first noted the peculiarities of the type.” 
References
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