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Testudo hermanni GMELIN, 1789

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Higher TaxaTestudinidae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesTestudo hermanni hermanni GMELIN 1789
Testudo hermanni boettgeri MOJSISOVICS 1889 
Common NamesE: Hermann’s Tortoise
G: Griechische Landschildkröte
E: Eastern Hermann’s Tortoise [boettgeri]
E: Western Hermann’s Tortoise [hermanni] 
SynonymTestudo hermanni GMELIN in LINNAEUS 1789
Testudo graeca bettai LATASTE 1881
Testudo graeca — BOULENGER 1889
Testudo hermanni robertmertensi WERMUTH 1952
Testudo hermanni robertmertensi — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977
Protestudo hermanni — CHKHIKVADZE 1970
Testudo hermanni robertmertensi — FORMAN — & FORMAN 1981
Testudo hermanni — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Eurotestudo hermanni — LAPPARENT DE BROIN et al. 2006
Testudo (Chersine) hermanni — TTWG 2017: 157

Testudo hermanni hermanni GMELIN 1789
Testudo graeca var. hercegovinensis WERNER 1899
Testudo enriquesi PARENZAN 1932
Testudo hermanni hermanni — WERMUTH 1952
Testudo hercegovinensis — PERÄLÄ 2001
Testudo hermanni hermanni — KUYL et al. 2002
Testudo hercegovinensis — VINKE & VINKE 2004
Testudo hermanni hercegovinensis — ROGNER 2005
Testudo hercegovinensis — BONIN et al 2006
Testudo hermanni hercegovinensis — PAWLOWSKI & KRÄMER 2009
Testudo hermanni hercegovinensis — WIRTH 2010
Testudo hermanni hercegovinensis — WIRTH 2012
Testudo (Chersine) hermanni hermanni — TTWG 2017: 157

Testudo hermanni boettgeri MOJSISOVICS 1889
Testudo graeca var. boettgeri MOJSISOVICS 1889 [non Testudo boettgeri SIEBENROCK 1904]
Testudo hermanni boettgeri — ENGELMANN et al. 1993
Testudo hermanni boettgeri — KUYL et al. 2002
Eurotestudo boettgeri — LAPPARENT DE BROIN et al. 2006
Testudo boettgeri — BONIN et al 2006
Eurotestudo boettgeri — ROULIN et al. 2013
Testudo hermanni boettgeri — KOPPITZ et al. 2017
Testudo (Chersine) hermanni boettgeri — TTWG 2017: 157 
DistributionE Spain (also introduced to the Balearics: Mallorca, Menorca),
S France (incl. Corsica),
Italy (incl. Sardinia, Sicily, Elba, Pianosa, Lampedusa island),
Albania, Croatia (including some Adriatic islands),
Bosnia and Hercegovina, Monte Negro, Macedonia, Serbia,
Bulgaria, Romania,
Greece (incl. the Ionian Islands, Corfu = Corfou)
E Turkey

boettgeri: coastal regions of the former Yugoslavia, through Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, to the Black Sea. Type locality: Orsova, Banat.

Type locality: unknown (fide WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977) Map legend:
Distribution map - Distribution map.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MZUS 121 (Musée Zoologique de la ville de Strasbourg)
Holotype: SMF 7836 [boettgeri]
Holotype: SMF 37468 [robertmertensi] 
CommentSubspecies: Testudo hermanni robertmertensi has a yellow patch behind the eye which T. h. hermanni doesn't have. However, Highfield (1992) and others consider robertmertensi as invalid. Eastern populations should be called T. h. boettgeri in Highfield’s opinion.

Phylogeny: PARHAM et al. (2005, 2006) showed that T. hermanni is nested in a clade with Indotestudo, Agrionemys and Malacochersus and thus paraphyletic with respect to other Testudo species. In order to resolve the paraphyly “Testudo” hermanni may be placed in the genus “Agrionemys”.

Synonymy: Eurotestudo Lapparent de Broin et al., 2006, which was recently erected with the type species T. hermanni, is an objective junior synonym of Chersine Merrem, 1820 and Medaestia Wussow, 1916 according to FRITZ & BININDA-EMONDS (2007).

Hybridization: T. horsfieldi and T. hermanni may hybridize (Kirsche 1984). 
Etymologynamed after Jean Hermann (1738-1800), Professor of Natural History and herpetologist in Strasbourg, France. 
References
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