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Testudo horsfieldii GRAY, 1844

IUCN Red List - Testudo horsfieldii - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaTestudinidae, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesTestudo horsfieldii horsfieldii GRAY 1844
Testudo horsfieldii bogdanovi CHKHIKVADZE 2008
Testudo horsfieldii kazachstanica CHKHIKVADZE 1988
Testudo horsfieldii kuznetzovi CHKHIKVADZE, ATAEV, SHAMMAKOV & ZATOKA 2009
Testudo horsfieldii rustamovi CHKHIKVADZE, AMIRANSCHWILI & ATAJEW 1990
Testudo horsfieldii terbishi CHKHIKVADZE 2009 
Common NamesE: Horsfield’s Tortoise
G: Steppenschildkröte 
SynonymTestudo horsfieldii GRAY 1844: 7
Homopus burnesii BLYTH 1854
Testudo horsfieldii — GRAY 1857: 343
Testudinella Horsfieldii — GRAY 1873: 143
Testudo baluchiorum ANNANDALE 1906
Agrionemys horsfieldii — KHOZATSKY & MLYNARSKI 1966
Testudo horsfieldii — TRUTNAU 1975: 138
Agryonemys [sic] horsfieldii — LANGERWERF 1979
Agrionemys horsfieldii — OBST 1985
Agrionemys horsfieldi — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Testudo horsfieldii — XIANGKUI 1994
Testudo horsfieldii — DAS 1996: 39
Agrionemys horsfieldi — SZCZERBAK 2003
Testudo horsfieldii — JOHNSTON et al. 2006
Agrionemys (Testudo) horsfieldii — BONIN et al 2006
Agrionemys horsfieldi — BONDARENKO et al. 2008
Testudo horsfieldii — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008

Testudo horsfieldii kazachstanica CHKHIKVADZE 1988
Agrionemys horsfieldi kazachstanica CHKHIKVADZE 1988
Testudo horsfieldii kazachstanica — DAVID 1994
Agrionemys horsfieldi kazachstanica — LAGARDE 2004

Testudo horsfieldii rustamovi CHKHIKVADZE, AMIRANSCHWILI & ATAJEW 1990
Agrionemys horsfieldi rustamovi CHKHIKVADZE et al. 1990
Testudo horsfieldii rustamovi — DAVID 1994
Agrionemys rustamovi — PERÄLÄ 2002
Agrionemys horsfieldi rustamovi — LAGARDE 2004 
DistributionSE Russia (from the Caspian Sea southward), Azerbaijan, S Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, N/E Iran, Afghanistan, N Pakistan, N/W Baluchistan, NW China (Xinjiang); elevations up to 2400 m (in Afghanistan fide WERNING & WOLF 2007).

Type locality: Kabul, Afghanistan

rustamovi: Iran Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
ReproductionTestudo horsfieldii  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1947.3.4.3. 
CommentType species: Testudo horsfieldii is the type species of the genus Agrionemys KHOZATSKY & MLYNARSKI 1966.

Distribution: Reports from Armenia are not confirmed by Ananjeva et al. (2004). Reports from Nepal also need confirmation (BONIN et al. 2006). 
References
  • Auer, M. & Herz, M. 2007. Die Landschildkröten des Iran - Persische Populationen der Maurischen Landschildkröte. Draco 8 (32): 50-55 - get paper here
  • Bondarenko, D. A. and Т. N. Dujsebayeva 2012. CENTRAL ASIAN TURTLE, AGRIONEMYS HORSFIELDII (GRAY, 1844), IN KAZAKHSTAN (ITS DISTRIBUTION, HABITAT DIVISION, AND POPULATION DENSITY) [in Russian] СОВРЕМЕННАЯ ГЕРПЕТОЛОГИЯ 12 (1/2): 3 – 26
  • Bondarenko, D.A. & Evgeny A. Peregontsev 2009. Peculiarities of landscape distribution of the Central Asian Tortoise, Agrionemys horsfieldii, in Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 48: 49–62 - get paper here
  • Bondarenko, D.A.; E. A. Peregontsev and G. B. Mukhtar 2008. Current State of Steppe Tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii Gray, 1844) Populations in Landscapes of Southern Kazakhstan. Russian Journal of Ecology, 39 (3): 210–214
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Buskirk, James R. 1989. New locality records for Chinese non-marine chelonians [Chinemys reevesii nigricans, Cistoclemmys flavomarginata, Cuora galbinifrons hainanensis pani, Mauremys mutica, Clemmys Oscadia sinensis, Sacalia bealei quadriocellata, Platysternon megacephalum Chinese Herpetological Research 2 (2): 65-68
  • Engelmann,W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Farke, C. M. & C. Distler 2015. Ontogeny and abnormalities of the tortoise carapace: a computer tomography and dissection study. Salamandra 51 (3): 231-244 - get paper here
  • Fischer, S. & Homuth, M. 2006. Herpesvirus infection in tortoises - illness, diagnosis, and prevention. Reptilia (GB) (47): 78-82 - get paper here
  • Fischer, S. & Homuth, M. 2006. Virusinfektion bei Landschildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (57): 56-63 - get paper here
  • Fong, J.J. & Qiao, G.X. 2010. New localities of endangered Chinese turtles from museum specimens and the practical and ethical challenges using and reporting natural history collection data. Zootaxa 2393: 59–68 - get paper here
  • Fritz, U. 1995. Schildkröten-Hybriden. 2. Halsberger-Schildkröten (Cryptodira). Herpetofauna 17 (95): 19-34 - get paper here
  • Gray, J.E. 1844. Catalogue of Tortoises, Crocodilians, and Amphisbaenians in the Collection of the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History), London. viii + 80 p. - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1857. Notice of some Indian tortoises (including the description of a new species presented to the British Museum by Professor Oldham). Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 19: 342-344 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1873. Notes on tortoises. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 11: 143-149 - get paper here
  • Gutsche, A. 2012. Klassiker: Die Steppenschildkröte. Terraria Elaphe 2012 (4): 74-75
  • Hempel, W. 1991. Agrionemys horsfieldii (GRAY, 1844). Sauria 13 Suppl.: 213–216 - get paper here
  • Herz, M. & Auer, M. 2007. Die Landschildkröten des Iran - Steppenschildkröten in Persien. Draco 8 (32): 56-60 - get paper here
  • Hitschfeld, Ellen; Auer, Markus; Fritz, Uwe 2008. Phalangeal formulae and ontogenetic variation of carpal morphology in Testudo horsfieldii and T. hermanni. Amphibia-Reptilia 29 (1): 93-99 - get paper here
  • Jamniczky, H. A. and A. P. Russell 2007. Reappraisal of Patterns of Nonmarine Cryptodiran Turtle Carotid Circulation: Evidence From Osteological Correlates and Soft Tissues. JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY 268:571–587
  • Johnston, E.E.; Rand, M.S. & Zweifel, S.G. 2006. Detection of multiple paternity and sperm storage in a captive colony of the central Asian tortoise Testudo horsfieldii. Can. J. Zool. 84: 520-526
  • Joisten, F. 2013. Amphibien und Reptilien in Nord-Afghanistan. Reptilia (Münster) 18 (103): 86-93 - get paper here
  • Kabisch, K. 2001. Bastardierung von Testudo horsfieldii GRAY 1844 und Testudo graeca ibera PALLAS 1814. Sauria 23 (2): 7-11 - get paper here
  • Kami, H. G. 1999. On the biology of the Afghan Tortoise, Testudo horsfieldi, in north-eastern Iran (Reptilia: Testudines). Zoology in the Middle East 19: 43 - get paper here
  • Khan, M.S. 2006. Amphibians and reptiles of Pakistan. Krieger, Malabar, 311 pp. - get paper here
  • Khozatsky, L.I. & MLYNARSKI, M. 1966. Agrionemys - nouveau genre de tortues terrestres (Testudinidae). Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci., Cl. II, 14 (2): 123-125
  • Langerwerf, B. 1979. De herpetofauna van Oezbekistan (1). Lacerta 37 (8): 133-136 - get paper here
  • Lee, D.S. & Smith, K. 2010. Testudostan: Our Post-Cold War Global Exploitation of a Noble Tortoise. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 45(1):1-9 - get paper here
  • Lourenço, João M.; Julien Claude, Nicolas Galtier, Ylenia Chiari 2011. Dating cryptodiran nodes: Origin and diversification of the turtle superfamily Testudinoidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (1): - get paper here
  • Obst, F.J. 1986. Turtles, tortoises and terrapins. St. Martins, New York. 231 pp.
  • Parham, James F.; Macey, J. Robert; Papenfuss, Theodore J.; Feldman, Chris R.; Turkozan, Oguz; Polymeni, Rosa; Boore, Jeffrey 2006. The phylogeny of Mediterranean tortoises and their close relatives based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences from museum specimens. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38(1):50-64 [2005] - get paper here
  • Pieh, A. & Philippen, H.D. 2007. Mediterrane Landschildkröten. Draco 8 (32): 4-34 - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Stalmakova, V. A. 2005. An albino of Steppe Tortoise (Agrionemys horsfieldii(Gray, 1844)) with an unusual shell anomaly. Modern Herpetology 3/4:117-120.
  • Steinle,C.P. 1977. Ein rätselhaftes Gelege. Eier von Testudo horsfieldii durch T. hermanni befruchtet?. Aquar. Terr. Z. (Stuttgart) 30 (1): 33-34
  • Szczerbak, N.N. 2003. Guide to the Reptiles of the Eastern Palearctic. Krieger, Malabar, FL, 260 pp. - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 1975. Europaische Amphibien und Reptilien. Belser Verlag, Stuttgart 212 pp.
  • Türkozan, Oğuz; Adem Özdemir, and Ferhat Kiremit 2008. International Testudo Trade. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 7(2): 269
  • van der Kuyl, Antoinette C.; Donato L. Ph. Ballasina, John T. Dekker, Jolanda Maas, Ronald E. Willemsen and Jaap Goudsmit 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships among the Species of the Genus Testudo (Testudines: Testudinidae) Inferred from Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Gene Sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 174-183 - get paper here
  • Vasilyev, V. A.; D. A. Bondarenko; E. A. Peregontsev; A. S. Voronov; A. P. Ryskov and S. K. Semenova 2008. Polymorphism of the 12S rRNA Gene and Phylogeography of the Central Asian Tortoises Agrionemys horsfieldii Gray, 1844. Russian Journal of Genetics 44 (6): 682–685
  • Werning, H. & Wolf, C. 2007. Gebirge und Hochland - Reptilien und Amphibien in einem extremen Lebensraum. Draco 7 (27): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Wilms, T. 2004. Die Steppenschildkröte (Testudo horsfieldii). Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 64 pp. - get paper here
  • Wogawa, Diane 1996. Die Steppenschildkröte. DATZ 49 (8): 497
  • Xiangkui-Y 1994. Fossil and recent turtles of China. Science Press, Beijing. 1994: i-vi, 1-112
 
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