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Testudo horsfieldii GRAY, 1844

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Higher TaxaTestudinidae, Testudinoidea, Testudines (turtles)
SubspeciesTestudo horsfieldii horsfieldii GRAY 1844
Testudo horsfieldii bogdanovi CHKHIKVADZE 2008
Testudo horsfieldii kazachstanica CHKHIKVADZE 1988
Testudo horsfieldii kuznetzovi CHKHIKVADZE, ATAEV, SHAMMAKOV & ZATOKA 2009
Testudo horsfieldii rustamovi CHKHIKVADZE, AMIRANSCHWILI & ATAEV 1990 
Common NamesE: Horsfield’s Tortoise
G: Steppenschildkröte
E: Fergana Valley Steppe Tortoise [bogdanovi]
E: Kazakhstan Steppe Tortoise [kazachstanica]
E: Turkmenistan Steppe Tortoise [kuznetzovi]
E: Kopet-Dag Steppe Tortoise [rustamovi]
Chinese: 四爪陆龟 
SynonymTestudo horsfieldii GRAY 1844: 7
Homopus burnesii BLYTH 1854
Testudo horsfieldii — GRAY 1857: 343
Testudinella Horsfieldii — GRAY 1873: 143
Testudo baluchiorum ANNANDALE 1906
Agrionemys horsfieldii — KHOZATSKY & MLYNARSKI 1966
Testudo horsfieldii — TRUTNAU 1975: 138
Agryonemys [sic] horsfieldii — LANGERWERF 1979
Agrionemys horsfieldii — OBST 1985
Agrionemys horsfieldi — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Testudo horsfieldii — XIANGKUI 1994
Testudo horsfieldii — DAS 1996: 39
Agrionemys horsfieldi — SZCZERBAK 2003
Testudo horsfieldii — JOHNSTON et al. 2006
Agrionemys (Testudo) horsfieldii — BONIN et al 2006
Agrionemys horsfieldi — BONDARENKO et al. 2008
Testudo horsfieldii — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii horsfieldii — TTWG 2017: 155
Testudo horsfieldii — TTWG 2021
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii horsfieldii — TTWG 2021

Testudo horsfieldii bogdanovi CHKHIKVADZE 2008
Agrionemys bogdanovi CHKHIKVADZE 2008
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii bogdanovi — TTWG 2017: 156
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii bogdanovi — TTWG 2021

Testudo horsfieldii kazachstanica CHKHIKVADZE 1988
Agrionemys horsfieldi kazachstanica CHKHIKVADZE 1988
Testudo horsfieldii kazachstanica — DAVID 1994
Agrionemys horsfieldi kazachstanica — LAGARDE 2004
Agrionemys kazachstanica terbishi CHKHIKVADZE 2009
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii kazachstanica — TTWG 2017: 156
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii kasachstanica — DAVLETBAKOV et al. 2016
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii kazachstanica — TTWG 2021

Testudo horsfieldii kuznetzovi CHKHIKVADZE, ATAEV, SHAMMAKOV & ZATOKA 2009
Agrionemys kazachstanica kuznetzovi CHKHIKVADZE, ATAEV, SHAMMAKOV & ZATOKA 2009
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii kuznetzovi — TTWG 2017: 156
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii kuznetzovi — TTWG 2021

Testudo horsfieldii rustamovi CHKHIKVADZE, AMIRANSCHWILI & ATAJEW 1990
Agrionemys horsfieldi rustamovi CHKHIKVADZE et al. 1990
Testudo horsfieldii rustamovi — DAVID 1994
Agrionemys rustamovi — PERÄLÄ 2002
Agrionemys horsfieldi rustamovi — LAGARDE 2004
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii rustamovi — TTWG 2017: 156
Testudo (Agrionemys) horsfieldii rustamovi — TTWG 2021
DistributionS Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, N/E Iran, Afghanistan, N Pakistan, N/W Baluchistan, NW China (Xinjiang); elevations up to 2400 m (in Afghanistan fide WERNING & WOLF 2007).

Type locality: Kabul, Afghanistan

bogdanovi: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan; Type locality: “Узбекистан (Окрестности городов Бухара, Самарканд, Карши), Восточный Туркменистан (окрестности Чарджоу) и Киргизстан (Чуйская долина и окрестности города Ош)” [Uzbekistan (vicinity of the cities of Bukhara, Samarkand, Karshy), East Turkmenistan (near Chardzhou) and Kyrgyzstan (Chuy valley and vicinity of Osh)]. Restricted to “Ферганская долина” [Ferghana Valley] [Uzbekistan] by Chkhikvadze et al. (2009:49).

kazachstanica: Afghanistan, China (Xinjiang), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Type locality: “Южное Прибалхашье, поселок Каратал” [south- ern Pribalkhashye (= Balkash), Karatal village]” [Kazakhstan].

kuznetzovi: Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; Type locality: “впадины Акчакая (Северный Туркменистан, к западу от г. Дашогуз – бывш. Ташауз)” [Akchakai depression (North Turkmenistan, west of the city of Dashoguz – prev. Tashauz)].

rustamovi: Afghanistan, Iran (Golestan, Khorasan Razavi, North Khorasan, Semnan), Turkmenistan; Type locality: “село Мадау (Кизыл-Атрекский район), Юго-Западный Туркменистан” [Madau Village, Kizyl Atrek Region, south-western Turkmenistan].  
ReproductionTestudo horsfieldii and Testudo graeca ibera have been reported to produce viable hybrids (KABISCH 2001). T. horsfieldii produced also hybrids with T. hermanni boettgeri (STEINLE 1977, FRITZ 1995). 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1947.3.4.3.
Holotype: GSM 13.4.60 (Collection of the Institute paleobiolo-energy, Georgian National Museum) [bogdanovi]
Holotype: ZIT 13.4.1 (formerly Georgian National Academy of Sciences, paleo collection, fide CHKHIKVADZE 1988) [kazachstanica]
Holotype: GSM (Collection of the Institute paleobiology of the National Museum of Georgia) [kuznetzovi] 
CommentType species: Testudo horsfieldii is the type species of the genus Agrionemys KHOZATSKY & MLYNARSKI 1966.

Distribution: Reports from Armenia are not confirmed by Ananjeva et al. (2004). Reports from Nepal also need confirmation (BONIN et al. 2006). Not in Russia fide Igor Doronin (pers. comm., 29 July 2017) nor in Azerbaijan (Igor Doronin (pers. comm., 9 Jan 2023). For a map see Escoriza & Hassine 2022: Fig. 1.

Hybridization: T. horsfieldi and T. hermanni may hybridize (Kirsche 1984).

Etymology: T. h. bogdanovi was named after herpetologist Oleg Pavlovich Bogdanov. T. h. kuznetzovi was named after the paleoherpetologist Valentin Vasilyevich Kuznetsova. 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Thomas Horsfield (1773-1859), American naturalist and physician. He worked in Java (1796) and for the East India Company and blater ecame a friend of Sir Thomas Raffies. 
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