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Tetradactylus eastwoodae HEWITT & METHUEN, 1913

IUCN Red List - Tetradactylus eastwoodae - Extinct, EX

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Higher TaxaGerrhosauridae (Gerrhosaurinae), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Eastwood’s Long-tailed Seps
G: Eastwoods Geißel-Schildechse 
SynonymTetradactylus eastwoodae HEWITT & METHUEN 1913
Tetradactylus eastwoodae — FITZSIMONS 1943: 294
Tetradactylus eastwoodae — SALVIDIO et al. 2004
Tetradactylus eastwoodae — BATES et al. 2014: 233 
DistributionSE Republic of South Africa (Transvaal)

Type locality: Woodbush Forest Reserve, Naphuno District, Limpopo Province.  
TypesHolotype: DNMNH (= TM) 1496 (Transvaal Museum, Pretoria)
Holotype: DNMNH (= TM) 13104 [eastwoodae] 
DiagnosisDescription: Serpentiform Limbs very small, digits clawed; forelimb tridactyle, middle finger longest, inner longer than outer, which is minute; hiridlimb a little langei-than forelimb, didactyle: inner toe minute. Nostril pierced between two nasals and separated from 1st upper labial. 2-3 Upper labials anterior to subocular.
Frontal about 1.5 times as long as broad. Frontoparietals' reduced in size and more or less bandlike. Interparietal elongate and. separating frontoparietals. Parietals distinctly longer than broad. Four supra-oculars, first three in contact with frontal. Two upper labials anterior to subocular, which is strongly elongate. Dorsal scales striated and strongly keeled (striated only, on nape), in 12 longitudinal and 67-70 transverse rows. Ventral plates in 6-8 longitudinal and about 50 transverse series. Three enlarged preanal scales; 3 femoral pores on each side (Fitzsimons 1943: 294).

Colour: Olive brown above, uniform over back and tail or with indistinctly-marked, darker, longitudinal lines or series of spots; head dark spotted above. Below paler than above, usually greyish-brown (Fitzsimons 1943: 294). 
CommentConservation: T. eastwoodae is at present considered extinct. It is known only from two specimens, the holotype and another specimen collected by by V.A. Wager in 1928 (Bates et al. 2014, Tolley et al. 2016).

Abundance: only known from the type specimen (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyNamed after the collector, A. Eastwood. 
  • Baillie, Jonathan E. M.; Janine Griffiths, Samuel T. Turvey, Jonathan Loh and Ben Collen (eds.) 2010. Evolution Lost: Status and Trends of the World’s Vertebrates. Zoological Society of London, United Kingdom, 95 pp.
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Berger-Dell'mour, H. A. E. 1983. Der Übergang von Echse zu Schleiche in der Gattung Tetradactylus, Merrem. Zool. Jb. Anat., 110 (1983): 1-152
  • FitzSimons, V.F. 1943. The lizards of South Africa. Transvaal Museum Memoir No.1 (Pretoria), 528 pp.
  • Hewitt,J. & Methuen,P.A. 1913. Descriptions of some new Batrachia and Lacertilia from South Africa. Trans. Roy. Soc. South Africa (Cape Town) 3: 107-111 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Salvidio, S., M. Menegon, R. Sindaco and D. Moyer 2004. A new species of elongate seps from Udzungwa grasslands, southern Tanzania (Reptilia, Gerrhosauridae, Tetradactylus Merrem, 1820). Amphibia-Reptilia 25 (1): 19-27 - get paper here
  • Tolley, Krystal A.; Graham J. Alexander, William R. Branch, Philip Bowles, Bryan Maritz 2016. Conservation status and threats for African reptiles. Biological Conservation, doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2016.04.006 - get paper here
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