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Thamnodynastes pallidus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Thamnodynastes pallidus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Amazon Coastal House Snake (pallidus)
E: Northern Coastal House Snake (strigilis)
Portuguese: Cobra-Corre-Campo, Cobra-do-Mato, Corre-Campo, Corredeira, Jararaca-Falsa, Jararaquinha, Ubicorá f 
SynonymColuber pallidus LINNAEUS 1758: 221
Coluber strigilis THUNBERG 1787 (fide CEI 1993)
Natrix punctatissima WAGLER 1824: 39
Thamnodynastes punctatissimus — WAGLER 1830: 182
Dipsas punctatissima — SCHLEGEL 1837: 292
Sibon punctatissimus — BERTHOLD 1840: 900
Dipsas punctatissima — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1151
Thamnodynastes pallidus — ANDERSSON 1899: 17
Dryophylax pallidus — AMARAL 1930: 103
Thamnodynastes pallidus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 300
Thamnodynastes pallidus — MYERS & DONNELLY 1996: 46
Dryophylax pallidus — JAUCH 1979
Dryophylax pallidus strigilis — JAUCH 1979
Thamnodynastes strigilis — MYERS & DONNELLY 1996: 46
Thamnodynastes strigilis — STARACE 1998: 338
Thamnodynastes strigilis — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Thamnodynastes pallidus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Thamnodynastes strigilis — RODRIGUES 2003
Thamnodynastes cf. pallidus — RIVAS & BARRIO 2005
Thamnodynastes strigilis — BLANCO-TORRES et al. 2013
Thamnodynastes pallidus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 718
Thamnodynastes pallidus — TREVINE et al. 2021
Thamnodynastes pallidus — TREVINE et al. 2022 
DistributionGuyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil (Amazonas, Amapá, Bahia, Pernambuco, Paraíba etc), Peru, Venezuela (Cojedes), Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador

strigilis: Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Argentina; Type locality: unknown (fide KORNACKER 1999).

Type locality: “Indiis” [in error]  
TypesNeotype: UUZM (= ZMUU) 292 (previously the lectotype of T. strigilis), designated by Bailey et al. 2005; Holotype: originally NRM = Royal Museum Stockholm (mislabelled as Coluber mycterizans fide BAILEY et al. 2005);
Lectotype: ZSM 2043/0, male [Natrix punctatissima] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). “Dorsal scales in 17/17/11 or 17/17/13 series (19/19/15 in Th. longicaudus); loreal scale tall (longer than wider); nasal single; preoculars two; elongated body and long tail, with the highest subcaudal counts within Tachymenini (subcaudals 70–109). Eye width larger than the distance between nostrils; labials with a light background and small black dots, forming circular blotches; horizontal band from nasal to the corner of the mouth, crossing the eye horizontally. Harder gland completely covered by adductor musculature. Hemipenis with short lobes (feeble bilobation); sulcus spermaticus extending into an open Y-shaped naked area; enlarged spines absent on hemipenial body; and small spines distributed throughout the base of the hemipenis, the same size as body spines (Fig. S6G).” (Trevine et al. 2022, Appendix 3)

Synapomorphies (genus). “Termination of sulcus spermaticus expanded into a single naked area on the lobes of the hemipenis; posterior projection on the transverse process of the premaxilla present; trifurcated basiocciptal crest; and ventral surface of parabasisphenoid bone with one central crest” (Trevine et al. 2022, Appendix S3–S5).

Diagnosis: Thamnodynastes pallidus has smooth dorsal scales, usually 17-17-13 or -11 (rarely 19 at midbody); cloacal scale usually single; maxillary teeth 16-20+2G; eye very large; ventrals, males 149-163, females 136-149; subcaudals, males 85-100, females 78-97; hemipenis about 6-8 SC long, moderately stout,finely spinous, unforked and with sulcus simple; posterior ventral pattern of three sets of quadruple lines (or approximated pairs).

The following characters may be used to separate T. pallidus from sympatric congeners that have been described (characters are given for the sympatric species, followed parenthetically by characters of T. pallidus): T lanei has keeled (vs. smooth) dorsal scales, dorsal scales 17-17-15 (vs. 17-17-13 or less), and a divided (vs. single) cloacal scale; T. chaquensis with slightly keeled scales (vs. smooth), dorsal scales 19-19-15 (vs. 17-17- 13 or less), divided (vs. single) cloacal scale, and venter heavily suffused with dark pigment (vs. pale); T. attenuata has dorsal scale rows 19-19-15 (vs. 17-17-13 or less) and a divided (vs. single) cloacal scale.

Character table: Franco et al. 2017, Trevine et al. 2021: 245 (Table 2) 
CommentNot listed by GASC & RODRIGUES 1980.

Synonymy partly after CEI 1993 and BAILEY et al (2005). AMARAL 1926 and BAILEY (2005) synonymized Thamnodynastes strigilis with T. pallidus.

Distribution: Not in Paraguay (fide Cacciali et al. 2016) where Thamnodynastes strigatus is found instead. Not in Uruguay fide CARREIRA et al. (2005); note that KORNACKER (1999) listed strigilis for Uruguay too. See map in Nogueira et al. 2019.

Type species: Coluber pallidus LINNAEUS 1758: 221 is the type species of the genus Thamnodynastes WAGLER 1830.

NCBI: 2966562 [nattereri] 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “pallidus” = pale or yellow(ish). 
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