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Thamnophis butleri (COPE, 1889)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis butleri - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Butler's Garter Snake
G: Butlers Strumpfbandnatter 
SynonymEutaenia butleri COPE 1889
Thamnophis butleri — RUTHVEN 1908 (part.)
Thamnophis butleri — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 168
Thamnophis butleri — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis butleri — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 102
Thamnophis butleri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 720 
DistributionUSA (NE Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, SE Wisconsin), Canada (S Ontario)

Type locality: Richmond, Indiana.  
TypesHolotype: lost, was PUL 264 (Purdue University, now lost fide Minton, 1980: 258.1). 
EtymologyNamed after Amos William Butler (1860-1937), American ornithologist. He was a founding member of the Brookville (Indiana) Society of Natural History (1881) and wrote Birds of lndiana (1891). Butler also presented the type specimen to Cope. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bourguignon, T. 2002. Strumpfbandnattern: Herkunft - Pflege - Arten. E. Ulmer Verlag, 125 pp.
  • Burbrink FT, Futterman I. 2019. Female‐ biased gape and body-size dimorphism in the New World watersnakes (tribe: Thamnophiini) oppose predictions from Rensch's rule. Ecol Evol. 00:1–10
  • Conant, Roger 1938. The Reptiles of Ohio. American Midland Naturalist 20 (1): 1-200 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger 1950. On the taxonomic status of Thamnophis butleri (Cope). Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 9 (4): 71-77
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1888. On the Eutaenia of Southeastern Indiana. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 11: 399-400 [1889] - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Davis, D. Dwight 1932. Occurence of Thamnophis butleri Cope in Wisconsin. Copeia 1932 (3): 113-118 - get paper here
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Ferguson, Gary W. 1977. Display and Communications in Reptiles: An Historical Perspective. American Zoologist 17: 167-176 - get paper here
  • Finneran, L.C. 1949. A Sexual Aggregation of the Garter Snake Thamnophis butleri (Cope) Copeia 1949 (2): 141-144. - get paper here
  • Fitzpatrick, B.M. et al. 2008. Distinctiveness in the face of gene flow: hybridization between specialist and generalist gartersnakes. Molecular Ecology 17: 4107–4117 - get paper here
  • Ford, N.B. & D.W. Killebrew 1983. Reproductive Tactics and Female Body Size in Butler’s Garter Snake, Thamnophis butleri Journal of Herpetology 17 (3): 271-275. - get paper here
  • Gray, B. S. 2012. Thamnophis butleri (Butler's gartersnake) morphology. Herpetological Review 43: 351 - get paper here
  • Grübner, Daniel 2014. Farbformen bei Strumpfbandnattern. Ein Blick in die Vergangenheit, das Heute und die Trends von Morgen. Draco 16 (57): 16-27 - get paper here
  • HALLAS, JOSHUA M.; THOMAS L. PARCHMAN & CHRIS R. FELDMAN. 2021. Phylogenomic analyses resolve relationships among garter snakes (Thamnophis: Natricinae: Colubridae) and elucidate biogeographic history and morphological evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 107374. [2022 in print] - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. & Chlebowy, J. 2001. Strumpfbandnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Hallmen, Martin 2009. Umbau eines Miniteiches zu einem kleinen Freilandterrarium für Butler’s Strumpfbandnattern Thamnophis butleri. Ophidia 3 (2): 4-14 - get paper here
  • Harrison, B.C. & Steinle, Cindy 2020. An albino Butler’s Gartersnake (Thamnophis butleri) from Milwaukee County, Wisconsin. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 27 (3): 451 - get paper here
  • Kapfer, Joshua M., Kerry Katovich, Gregor W. Schuurman, Rori A. Paloski and Brian L. Sloss. 2013. Geographic Distribution: Thamnophis butleri (Butler's gartersnake). Herpetological Review 44 (2): 276 - get paper here
  • Kapfer, Joshua M.; Kirsten Doehler, and Robert Hay 2013. The Influence of Habitat Type and the Presence of an Invasive Wetland Plant (Phalaris arundinacea) on Capture Rates of Sympatric Rare and Common Gartersnake Species (Thamnophis butleri and Thamnophis sirtalis). Journal of Herpetology Mar 2013, Vol. 47, No. 1: 126-130. - get paper here
  • King, Richard B.; Oldham, Michael J.; Weller, Wayne F.; Wynn, Douglas. 1997. Historic and current amphibian and reptile distributions in the Island Region of Western Lake Erie. American Midland Naturalist 138(1):153-173 - get paper here
  • Logier, E. B. Shelley 1939. Butler's Garter-Snake, Thamnophis butleri, in Ontario Copeia, 1939(1), 20-23 - get paper here
  • Minton S A 1980. Thamnophis butleri (Cope). Butler's garter snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 258: 1-2 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Phillips, JG 2016. Updated Geographic Distributions of Michigan Herpetofauna: a Synthesis of Old and New Sources. The Journal of North American Herpetology 2016: 45–69 - get paper here
  • Phillips, John G. 2016. Updated geographic distributions of Michigan herpetofauna: A synthesis of old and new sources. The Journal of North American Herpetology 2016(1):45-69. - get paper here
  • Queiroz, Alan de; Robin Lawson and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of North American Garter Snakes (Thamnophis) Based on Four Mitochondrial Genes: How Much DNA Sequence Is Enough? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 315-329 - get paper here
  • Rossman, Douglas A.; Ford, Neil B. & Seigel, Richard A. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, xx + 332 + pp.
  • Ruthven, A.G. 1915. The Gestation Period in Thamnophis butleri (Cope) Copeia 15: 3-4. - get paper here
  • Ruthven,A.G. 1908. Variations and genetic relationships of the garter-snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 61: 201 pp. - get paper here
  • Shonfield, Julia; Wayne King, and William R. Koski 2019. Habitat Use and Movement Patterns of Butler’s Gartersnake (Thamnophis butleri) in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Herp. Conserv. Biology 14 (3): - get paper here
  • Smith, A.G. 1945. The status of Thamnophis butleri COPE, and a redescription of Thamnophis brachystoma (COPE). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 58: 147-154 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L. 1894. Notes on Butler’s Garter Snake. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 17: 593-594 - get paper here
  • Strathemann, U. 1986. Erfahrungen mit Thamnophis butleri während ganzjähriger Freilandhaltung. Sauria 8 (1): 5-6 - get paper here
  • Strathemann, U. 1995. Freilandhaltung nordamerikanischer Wassernattern der Gattung Thamnophis und Nerodia. Teil. 2: Erfahrungen mit Thamnophis und Nerodia. Sauria 17 (2): 15-23 - get paper here
  • Strathemann, Udo 1989. Erfahrungen mit Thamnophis butleri während ganzjahriger Freilandhaltung. Litteratura Serpentium 9 (3): 135 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Voris, H.K., D.R. Karns, K.A. Feldheim, B. Kechavarzi, and M. Rinehart. 2008. Multiple paternity in the oriental-australian rear-fanged watersnakes (Homalopsidae). Herp. Cons. Biol. 3: 88-102 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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