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Thamnophis hammondii (KENNICOTT, 1860)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis hammondii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Two-striped Garter Snake
G: Zweistreifen-Strumpfbandnatter 
SynonymEutaenia hammondii KENNICOTT 1860: 332
Thamnophis elegans hammondi
Thamnophis couchii hammondi — BELTZ 2003 (WWW)
Tropidonotus digueti MOCQUARD 1899: 327 (fide McGUIRE & GRISMER 1993)
Thamnophis hammondii — STEBBINS 1985: 207
Thamnophis hammondii digueti — STEBBINS 1985: 207
Thamnophis hammondii — LINER 1994
Thamnophis hammondii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 722 
DistributionUSA (S California), Mexico (Baja California)

Type locality: San Diego, California. California, Kern County, Ft. Tejon, fide MALNATE 1971. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionovoviviparous. 
TypesHolotype: USNM 894, male.
Syntype: ANSP 6522 
CommentBehavior: While most Thamnophis are diurnal, T. hammondii is at least partially nocturnal, e.g. during hot weather (Rossman et al. 1996). 
EtymologyNamed after William Alexander Hammond (1828-1900), American physician, collector of the type. 
References
  • Bourguignon, T. 2002. Strumpfbandnattern: Herkunft - Pflege - Arten. E. Ulmer Verlag, 125 pp.
  • Fitch,H.C. 1940. A biogeographical study of the ordinoides artenkreis of garter snakes (genus Thamnophis). Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 44: 1-150
  • Hallmen, M. & Chlebowy, J. 2001. Strumpfbandnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Kennicott, R. 1860. Descriptions of new species of North American serpents in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 328-338 - get paper here
  • Malnate, Edmund V. 1971. A catalogue of primary types in the Herpetological Collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (ANSP). Proccedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 123 (9): 345-375 - get paper here
  • Mcguire J A. GRISMER L L. 1993. The taxonomy and biogeography of Thamnophis hammondii and Thamnophis digueti (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) in Baja California, Mexico. Herpetologica 49 (3): 354-365. - get paper here
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Queiroz, Alan de; Robin Lawson and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of North American Garter Snakes (Thamnophis) Based on Four Mitochondrial Genes: How Much DNA Sequence Is Enough?. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 315-329 - get paper here
  • Rossman, Douglas A.; Ford, Neil B. & Seigel, Richard A. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, xx + 332 + pp.
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger,L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Tevis, lloyd, Jr. 1944. Herpetological notes from lower California. Copeia 1944 (1): 6-18 - get paper here
  • Thomson, Robert C.; Amber N. Wright & H. Bradley Shaffer 2016. California Amphibian and Reptile Species of Special Concern University of California Press - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, John 1896. Additional notes on the herpetology of Lower California. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 1004-1008 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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