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Thamnophis hammondii (KENNICOTT, 1860)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis hammondii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Two-striped Garter Snake
G: Zweistreifen-Strumpfbandnatter
S: Jarretera de Hammond 
SynonymEutaenia hammondii KENNICOTT 1860: 332
Thamnophis elegans hammondii — FOX 1951: 487
Tropidonotus digueti MOCQUARD 1899: 327 (fide McGUIRE & GRISMER 1993)
Thamnophis digueti — SEIB 1980: 614
Thamnophis couchi hammondi — BROWN 1980: 585
Thamnophis couchii hammondi — FITCH 1984
Thamnophis hammondii — STEBBINS 1985: 207
Thamnophis couchii hammondi — MEHRTENS 1987: 171
Thamnophis hammondii digueti — STEBBINS 1985: 207
Thamnophis hammondii — LINER 1994
Thamnophis couchii hammondi — BELTZ 2003 (WWW)
Thamnophis hammondii — WALLACH et al. 2014: 722 
DistributionUSA (S California), Mexico (Baja California)

Type locality: San Diego, California. California, Kern County, Ft. Tejon, fide MALNATE 1971.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 894 (fide Fitch 1984); Syntypes: USNM 5496, 329498; ANSP 6522, collected by W.A. Hammond, date unknown. 
CommentBehavior: While most Thamnophis are diurnal, T. hammondii is at least partially nocturnal, e.g. during hot weather (Rossman et al. 1996).

Synonymy: partly after Fitch 1984. 
EtymologyNamed after William Alexander Hammond (1828-1900), American physician, collector of the type. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bourguignon, T. 2002. Strumpfbandnattern: Herkunft - Pflege - Arten. E. Ulmer Verlag, 125 pp.
  • Brown, Timothy W. 1980. The Present Status of the Garter Snake on Santa Catalina Island, California 2nd California Islands Multidisciplinary Symposium 1978: 585-595 - get paper here
  • Burbrink FT, Futterman I. 2019. Female‐ biased gape and body-size dimorphism in the New World watersnakes (tribe: Thamnophiini) oppose predictions from Rensch's rule. Ecol Evol. 00:1–10
  • Fitch,H.C. 1940. A biogeographical study of the ordinoides artenkreis of garter snakes (genus Thamnophis). Univ. California Publ. Zool. 44: 1-150
  • Grismer, L. L.; McGuire, J. A. 1993. The oases of central Baja California, Mexico. Part I. A preliminary account of the relict mesophilic herpetofauna and the status of the oases. Bull. Southern California Acad. Sci. 92 (1): 2-24 - get paper here
  • HALLAS, JOSHUA M.; THOMAS L. PARCHMAN & CHRIS R. FELDMAN. 2021. Phylogenomic analyses resolve relationships among garter snakes (Thamnophis: Natricinae: Colubridae) and elucidate biogeographic history and morphological evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 107374. [2022 in print] - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. & Chlebowy, J. 2001. Strumpfbandnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Kennicott, R. 1860. Descriptions of new species of North American serpents in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 328-338 - get paper here
  • Malnate, Edmond V. 1971. A catalogue of primary types in the Herpetological Collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (ANSP). Proccedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 123 (9): 345-375 - get paper here
  • Mcguire J A. GRISMER L L. 1993. The taxonomy and biogeography of Thamnophis hammondii and Thamnophis digueti (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) in Baja California, Mexico. Herpetologica 49 (3): 354-365. - get paper here
  • Mehrtens, J.M. 1987. Living snakes of the world in color. Sterling Publ. Co., hic., New York, NY: 480 pp.
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Peralta-García A, Valdez-Villavicencio JH, Fucsko LA, Hollingsworth BD, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, Rocha A, DeSantis DL, Porras LW, and Wilson LD. 2023. The herpetofauna of the Baja California Peninsula and its adjacent islands, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 17(1&2): 57–142
  • Queiroz, Alan de; Robin Lawson and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of North American Garter Snakes (Thamnophis) Based on Four Mitochondrial Genes: How Much DNA Sequence Is Enough? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 315-329 - get paper here
  • Rossman, Douglas A.; Ford, Neil B. & Seigel, Richard A. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, xx + 332 + pp.
  • Seib, R. L. 1980. Baja California: A Peninsula for Rodents But Not for Reptiles. [reply to Taylor & Regal 1978] American Naturalist 115(4): 613–620 - get paper here
  • Sleijpen, Fons 2013. Pictures: Thamnophis hammondii, adult, female, Thamnophis melanogaster canescens, adult, female en Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis, juvenile, male. Litteratura Serpentium 33 (4): 334-335 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger, L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Tevis, lloyd, Jr. 1944. Herpetological notes from lower California. Copeia 1944 (1): 6-18 - get paper here
  • Thomson, Robert C.; Amber N. Wright & H. Bradley Shaffer 2016. California Amphibian and Reptile Species of Special Concern. University of California Press - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, John 1896. Additional notes on the herpetology of Lower California. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 1004-1008 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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