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Thamnophis melanogaster (WIEGMANN, 1830)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis melanogaster - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesThamnophis melanogaster canescens SMITH 1942
Thamnophis melanogaster chihuahuaensis TANNER 1959
Thamnophis melanogaster linearis SMITH, NIXON & SMITH 1950
Thamnophis melanogaster melanogaster (WIEGMANN 1830) 
Common NamesE: Blackbelly Garter Snake
G: Mexikanische Schwarzbauch-Strumpfbandnatter 
SynonymTropidonotus melanogaster WIEGMANN 1830
Tropidonotus melanogaster — PETERS 1864: 389
Tropidonotus (Regina) mesomelanus JAN 1863 (nomen oblitum)
Eutaenia melanogaster — COPE 1885: 386
Regina mesomelana — COPE 1865: 74
Tropidonotus melanogaster — BOULENGER 1893: 225
Thamnophis melanogaster melanogaster — SMITH 1942
Nerodia melanogaster — CHIASSON & LOWE 1989
Nerodia melanogaster — LINER 1994
Thamnophis (Nerodia) melanogaster — MUTSCHMANN 1995: 122
Thamnophis melanogaster — ROSSMAN et al. 1996
Thamnophis melanogaster — WALLACH et al. 2014: 723

Thamnophis melanogaster canescens SMITH 1942
Thamnophis melanogaster canescens SMITH 1942
Tropidonotus baronis-mülleri TROSCHEL in MÜLLER 1865: 610
Thamnophis melanogaster canescens — SMITH et al. 1950: 575
Thamnophis melanogaster canescens — CONANT 1963: 481
Thamnophis melanogaster canescens — WEBB 1984
Thamnophis melanogaster canescens — PETERSON 1995
Thamnophis melanogaster canescens — ROSSMAN et al. 1996

Thamnophis melanogaster chihuahuaensis TANNER 1959
Thamnophis melanogaster chihuahuaensis TANNER 1959
Thamnophis melanogaster chihuahuaensis — TANNER 1985: 653
Thamnophis melanogaster chihuahuaensis — ROSSMAN et al. 1996

Thamnophis melanogaster linearis SMITH, NIXON & SMITH 1950
Thamnophis melanogaster linearis SMITH, NIXON & SMITH 1950: 575
Thamnophis melanogaster linearis — ROSSMAN et al. 1996 
DistributionMexico (Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Querétaro, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Aguascalientes, Sonora, Hidalgo).

canescens: Mexico (Durango, Jalisco); Type locality: Chapala, Lake Chapala, Jalisco.

chihuahuanensis: Chihuahua, Durango (HR 33: 69)

linearis: Type locality: “Lerma, México”  
TypesSyntypes ZMB 1996, 1946, 51781
Holotype: FMNH 100016, male [canescens]
Holotype: BYU 14197, an adult male, collected by Wilmer W. Tanner and Wilber G. Robison,Jr., 29 June, 1958; Paratypes:BYU 13371, 13373, 13451, 13493, 13496, 13505, 14198-202, 14208-10 topotypes: 14283, Cuiteco; KU 44275-78 11/2 mi. E Creel; MMZ 111495-96, Mojarachic; 111497, Areponapuchic, Chihuahua, Mexico [chihuahuaensis]
Holotype: FMNH 123872; formerly private collection HM Smith 15942, male [linearis] 
CommentSynonymy: partly after BOULENGER 1893. See SMITH & CHISZAR (2001) for a comment on the name Tropidonotus (Regina) mesomelanus. Peters noted that the species was named by Wiegmann in 1830, without a description. (Wiegmann’s name seems to be available). 
EtymologyThe specific name melanogaster is derived from the Greek words melano, meaning "black" and gaster, meaning "belly." 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Bourguignon, T. 2002. Strumpfbandnattern: Herkunft - Pflege - Arten. E. Ulmer Verlag, 125 pp.
  • Chiasson,R.B. & LOWE,C.H. 1989. Ultrastructural scale pattens in Nerodia and Thamnophis. Journal of Herpetology 23 (2): 109-118 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger 1963. Semiaquatic snakes of the genus Thamnophis from the isolated drainage system of the Río Nazas and adjacent areas of Mexico. Copeia 1963 (3): 473-499 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. A contribution to the herpetology of Mexico. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 379-404 - get paper here
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  • González Fernández A, Manjarrez J, García-Vázquez U, D’Addario M, Sunny A. 2017. Environmental niche modeling; present and future potential distribution of garter snakes species from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. PeerJ Preprints 5:e3476v1 - get paper here
  • Gregory, T. G., L. A. Gregory, J. M. Macartney 1983. Color pattern variation in Thamnophis melanogaster. Copeia 1983 (2): 530-534 - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. & Chlebowy, J. 2001. Strumpfbandnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Jan, G. 1863. Elenco Sistematico degli Ofidi descriti e disegnati per l'Iconografia Generale. Milano, A. Lombardi. vii + 143 pp.
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  • Leyte-Manrique, Adrian; Abel Antonio Buelna-Chontal,<br />Miguel Alejandro Torres-Dıaz, Christian Berriozabal-Islas, and Carlos Alberto Maciel-Mata 2019. A Comparison of Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Between Disturbed and Undisturbed Environments of Salvatierra, Guanajuato, Mexico. Tropical Conservation Science 12: 1–12 - get paper here
  • Leyte-Manrique, Adrian; Christian Berriozabal-Islas, Vicente Mata-Silva, and Juan Pablo Morales-Castorena 2018. Herpetofaunal diversity in Área Natural Protegida Las Musas, Guanajuato, Mexico Mesoamerican Herpetology 5 (1): 122–136 - get paper here
  • Leyte-Manrique, Adrian; Efrén M. Hernández Navarro y Luis A. Escobedo-Morales 2015. Herpetofauna de Guanajuato: Un análisis histórico y contemporáneo de su conocimiento Revista Mexicana de Herpetología 1(1): 1–14 - get paper here
  • Manjarrez, Javier and Emma San-Roman-Apolonio 2015. Timing of Birth and Body Condition in Neonates of Two Gartersnake Species from Central México. Herpetologica Mar 2015, Vol. 71, No. 1: 12-18. - get paper here
  • McCranie, J.R. & Wilson, L.D. 2001. The herpetofauna of the Mexican State of Aguascalientes. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 230: 1-57
  • Müller, Johann Wilhelm 1865. Reisen in den Vereinigten Staaten, Canada und Mexiko. III. Beiträge zur Geschichte, Statistik und Zoologie von Mexiko. Dritte Abtheilung. Die Wirbeltiere Mexikos. III. Amphibia [Amphibia by Hugo Troschel, pp. 595-620]. Leipzig, Brockhaus. xiv + 643 pp. - get paper here
  • Mutschmann, Frank 1995. Die Strumpfbandnattern. WESTARP WISSENSCHAFTEN - Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei Bd.620, 172 pp.
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  • Peterson, H. William;Smith, Hobart M.;Chizsar, David 1995. Some noteworthy amphibians and reptiles from the region of Chapala, Jalisco, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 30 (5): 90-91 - get paper here
  • Queiroz, Alan de; Robin Lawson and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of North American Garter Snakes (Thamnophis) Based on Four Mitochondrial Genes: How Much DNA Sequence Is Enough?. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 315-329 - get paper here
  • Rossman, Douglas A.; Ford, Neil B. & Seigel, Richard A. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, xx + 332 + pp.
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  • Smith, Hobart M. 1942. The synonymy of the garter snakes (Thamnophis), with notes on Mexican and Central American species. Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society 27 (3 and 4): 97-123
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1943. Summary of the collections of snakes and crocodilians made in Mexico under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. Proceeding of the U. S. National Museum, 93 (3169): 393-504 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. and David Chiszar. 2001. The nomen protectum rule of the 1999 Code and name for the garter snake Thamnophis melanogaster (Peters). Herpetological Review 32 (3):160-161 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.; Nixon, C. William; Smith, Philip W. 1950. Mexican and Central American garter snakes (Thamnophis) in the British Museum (Natural History). Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 41 (282): 571-584 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1959. A new Thamnophis from western Chihuahua with notes on four other species. Herpetologica 15 (4): 165-172 - get paper here
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  • Wiegmann, A. F. A. 1830. Preisverzeichnis der Säugethiere, Vögel, Amphibien, Fische und Krebse, welche von Hrn Deppe und Schiede in Mexico gesammelt worden. Berlin, 1. Sept. 1930
  • Woolrich-Piña, Guillermo A, Paulino Ponce-Campos, Jesús Loc-Barragán, Juan Pablo Ramírez-Silva, Vicente Mata-Silva, Jerry D. Johnson, Elí García-Padilla and Larry David Wilson. 2016. The herpetofauna of Nayarit, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (2): 376-448 - get paper here
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