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Thamnophis proximus (SAY, 1823)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis proximus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesThamnophis proximus alpinus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus orarius ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus proximus (SAY 1823)
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus rutiloris (COPE 1885) 
Common NamesE: Western Ribbonsnake, Western Ribbon Snake
diabolicus: Arid Land Ribbon Snake
orarius: Gulf Coast Ribbon Snake
proximus: Western Ribbon Snake
rubrilineatus: Redstripe Ribbon Snake
G: Westliche Streifenstrumpfbandnatter, Westliche Bändernatter
S: Jarretera Occidental 
SynonymColuber proximus SAY 1823: 187
Eutaenia proxima — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Eutaenia proxima — GARMAN 1887: 125
Thamnophis proxima — GARMAN 1892: 105
Thamnophis saurita proxima — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 151
Thamnophis sauritus proximus — BURT 1935
Thamnophis sauritus — SCHMIDT 1941
Thamnophis sauritus proximus — SMITH 1942
Thamnophis sirtalis proximus — SHANNON & SMITH 1949
Thamnophis proximus — ROSSMAN 1963: 109
Thamnophis proximus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 303
Thamnophis sauritus proximus — MEERMAN 1979
Thamnophis proximus — STEBBINS 1985: 211
Thamnophis proximus — VILLA et al. 1988
Thamnophis proximus proximus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 172
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 172
Thamnophis proximus — LINER 1994
Thamnophis proximus — SAVAGE 2002
Thamnophis proximus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Thamnophis proximus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 724
Thamnophis proximus — SUNYER & MARTÍNEZ-FONSECA 2023

Thamnophis proximus alpinus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus alpinus — ROSSMAN 1996: 226
Thamnophis proximus alpinus — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008

Thamnophis proximus diabolicus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus ROSSMAN 1963: 135
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 124
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis proximus orarius ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus orarius ROSSMAN 1963: 132
Thamnophis proximus orarius — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis proximus orarius — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 123
Thamnophis proximus orarius — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Thamnophis proximus orarius — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis proximus proximus (SAY 1823)
Coluber proximus SAY 1823: 187
Eutainia faireyi BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Thamnophis proximus proximus — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis proximus proximus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 119
Thamnophis proximus proximus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus ROSSMAN 1963: 134
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 121
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus — HALLMEN & GRÜBNER 2006
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis proximus rutiloris (COPE 1885)
Eutaenia rutiloris COPE 1885: 388
Thamnophis proximus rutiloris — LINER 1969
Thamnophis proximus rutiloris — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008 
DistributionC USA (incl. Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, Kansas, Tennessee, Nebraska, Louisiana, Mississippi, Colorado, New Mexico),
E Mexico (incl. Puebla, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Oaxaca, Campeche, Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Veracruz), Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica

alpinus: Mexico (C Chiapas)

diabolicus: USA (W Texas, New Mexico)

orarius: USA (SE Texas, Louisiana)

proximus: USA (NE Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana)

rubrilineatus: USA (C Texas); Type locality. State Fish Hatchery, 8.2 miles northwest of Ingram, Kerr County, Texas. This fish hatchery is now the Texas Parks and Wildlife Heart of the Hills Fisheries Science Center.

rutiloris: Costa Rica; Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca)

Type locality: stone quarry on west side of Missouri three miles above the mouth of Boyer's River.  
TypesHolotype: Lost (SMITH & TAYLOR 1945)
Holotype: UF (formerly Florida State Museum of Natural History) 12216 [alpinus]
Holotype: UF (formerly Florida State Museum of Natural History) 12210 [diabolicus]
Syntypes: UMMZ 3695, USNM 752
Holotype: UF (formerly Florida State Museum of Natural History) 12188 [rubrilineatus]
Holotype: LSUM 111651 (was Tulane Univ. 11764), adult female collected by Horace Whitten on 28 February 1950. [orarius]
Holotype: USNM 13906, adult female collected by party from U. S. Fish Com· mission Albatross, 23-29 January 1885 [rutiloris]
Syntype: USNM 752 [Eutainia faireyi] 
CommentSynonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Similar to Natrix rhombifera blanchardi (SEUFER 1979).

Habitat: often found in trees (Glorioso & Waddle 2017). 
EtymologyThe specific name is derived from the Latin word proximus, meaning "nearest," in reference to its similarity to an eastern North American species, T sauritus (LEMOS-ESPINAL & DIXON 2013). 
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