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Thamnophis proximus (SAY, 1823)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis proximus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesThamnophis proximus alpinus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus orarius ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus proximus (SAY 1823)
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus rutiloris (COPE 1885) 
Common NamesE: Western Ribbon Snake
diabolicus: Arid Land Ribbon Snake
orarius: Gulf Coast Ribbon Snake
proximus: Western Ribbon Snake
rubrilineatus: Redstripe Ribbon Snake
G: Westliche Streifenstrumpfbandnatter, Westliche Bändernatter 
SynonymColuber proximus SAY 1823: 187
Eutaenia proxima — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853
Thamnophis proxima — GARMAN 1892: 105
Thamnophis saurita proxima — BARBOUR & COLE 1906: 151
Thamnophis sauritus proximus — BURT 1935
Thamnophis sauritus - SCHMIDT 1941
Thamnophis sauritus proximus — SMITH 1942
Thamnophis proximus — ROSSMAN 1963: 109
Thamnophis proximus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 303
Thamnophis sauritus proximus — MEERMAN 1979
Thamnophis proximus — STEBBINS 1985: 211
Thamnophis proximus - VILLA et al. 1988
Thamnophis proximus proximus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 172
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 172
Thamnophis proximus — LINER 1994
Thamnophis proximus — SAVAGE 2002
Thamnophis proximus — CROTHER et al. 2012
Thamnophis proximus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 724

Thamnophis proximus diabolicus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus ROSSMAN 1963: 135
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 124
Thamnophis proximus diabolicus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis proximus orarius ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus orarius ROSSMAN 1963: 132
Thamnophis proximus orarius — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis proximus orarius — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 123
Thamnophis proximus orarius — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis proximus proximus (SAY 1823)
Thamnophis proximus proximus — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis proximus proximus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 119
Thamnophis proximus proximus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus ROSSMAN 1963
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus ROSSMAN 1963: 134
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus — CROTHER 2000
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 121
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus — HALLMEN & GRÜBNER 2006
Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus — CROTHER et al. 2012

Thamnophis proximus rutiloris (COPE 1885)
Eutaenia rutiloris COPE 1885: 388
Thamnophis proximus rutiloris — LINER 1969 
DistributionC USA (incl. Illinois, Indiana, Oklahoma, Wisconsin, Kansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico),
E Mexico (incl. Puebla, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Oaxaca), Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica

alpinus: Mexico (C Chiapas)

diabolicus: W Texas, New Mexico

orarius: SE Texas, Louisiana

proximus: NE Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana

rubrilineatus: C Texas

rutiloris: Costa Rica; Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca)

Type locality: stone quarry on west side of Missouri three miles above the mouth of Boyer's River. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionovoviviparous. 
TypesHolotype: Lost (SMITH & TAYLOR 1945)
Holotype: Florida State Museum of Natural History 12216 [alpinus]
Holotype: Florida State Museum of Natural History 12210 [diabolicus]
Holotype: Florida State Museum of Natural History 12188 [rubrilineatus] 
CommentSynonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Similar to Natrix rhombifera blanchardi (SEUFER 1979). 
EtymologyThe specific name is derived from the Latin word proximus, meaning "nearest," in reference to its similarity to an eastern North American species, T sauritus (LEMOS-ESPINAL & DIXON 2013). 
References
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