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Thamnophis rufipunctatus (COPE, 1875)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis rufipunctatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Narrowhead Garter Snake, Narrowhead Watersnake
G: Schmalköpfige Strumpfbandnatter, Rotpunkt-Strumpfbandnatter 
SynonymChilopoma rufipunctatum COPE 1875: 544
Atomarchus multimaculatus COPE 1883
Tropidonotus rufipunctatus — GARMAN 1884: 23
Eutaenia multimaculata ‚ COPE 1886: 284
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — CONANT 1963: 480
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — STEBBINS 1985: 199
Thamnophis rufipunctatus rufipunctatus — TANNER 1985: 646
Nerodia rufipunctatus — CHIASSON & LOWE 1989
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — TANNER 1990
Nerodia rufipunctatus — LINER 1994
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — ROSSMAN et al. 1996: 241
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — WOOD et al. 2011
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 725

Eutaenia angustirostris KENNICOTT 1860: 332 (see comment)
Thamnophis angustirostris — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945
Natrix angustirostris — LOWE 1955
Thamnophis angustirostris — SMITH & SMITH 1976
Thamnophis angustirostris — LEMOS-ESPINAL 2015 
DistributionUSA (CE Arizona, CW New Mexico)

Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora, Durango)

Type locality: S Arizona

angustirostris: Mexico (Coahuila); type locality: Parras, Coahuila.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 8600
Lectotype: USNM 959 [angustirostris] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A moderate- to large-sized subspecies usually with 21-21-17 scale rows, head elongate and compressed laterally; 1 loreal, 2 preoculars, usually 3 postoculars with the inferior one being narrowly separated from or barely contacting the 4th supralabial in 75% of the specimens; 2 or occasionally only 1 supralabial entering orbit; ventrals 156 to 179, caudal 67-88, ventral-caudals average 239 (female) , 254 (male) ; (Table 2); ground color brown to olive brown, with 6 rows of dark brown or rust colored spots. (Tanner 1985) 
CommentSubspecies: Thamnophis rufipunctatus nigronuchalis THOMPSON 1957 has been elevated to full species status. Thamnophis rufipunctatus unilabialis TANNER 1985 has been considered as a synonym of Thamnophis rufipunctatus (ROSSMAN et al. 1996: 39) but more recently elevated to evolutionary species (WOOD et al. 2011).

Synonymy: That status of Eutaenia (Thamnophis) angustirostris remains unclear, see Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996. Related to Thamnophis (Nerodia) rufipunctatus and T. melanogaster. T. angustirostris is a nomen dubium fide ROSSMAN et al. 1996] and a “species inquirenda” by WALLACH et al. 2014: 828.

Distribution: T. angustirostris has been reported from Mexico (Distrito Federal, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora, Durango); Type locality: Parras, Coahuila. However, despite its uncertain status we do include it in the herpetofauna of Mexico, based on O. Flores-Villlea, pers. comm., 21 June 2021. Not listed in Liner 1994, 2007, nor by Heimes 2016. Enderson et al. 2009 reported T. rufipunctatus from Sonora.

Distribution: see map in Wood et al. 2011: 3838. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “rufus” = red and “punctum” = spot. 
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