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Thamnophis rufipunctatus (COPE, 1875)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis rufipunctatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Narrowhead Garter Snake, Narrowhead Watersnake
G: Schmalköpfige Strumpfbandnatter, Rotpunkt-Strumpfbandnatter 
SynonymChilopoma rufipunctatum COPE 1875: 544
Atomarchus multimaculatus COPE 1883
Tropidonotus rufipunctatus — GARMAN 1884: 23
Eutaenia multimaculata ‚ COPE 1886: 284
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — STEBBINS 1985: 199
Thamnophis rufipunctatus rufipunctatus — TANNER 1985: 646
Nerodia rufipunctatus - CHIASSON & LOWE 1989
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — TANNER 1990
Nerodia rufipunctatus — LINER 1994
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — ROSSMAN et al. 1996: 241
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — WOOD et al. 2011
Thamnophis rufipunctatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 725

Eutaenia angustirostris KENNICOTT 1860: 332 (see comment)
Thamnophis angustirostris — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945
Natrix angustirostris — LOWE 1955
Thamnophis angustirostris — SMITH & SMITH 1976 
DistributionUSA (CE Arizona, CW New Mexico)

Type locality: S Arizona Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionovoviviparous. 
TypesHolotype: USNM 8600
Holotype: USNM [angustirostris] 
CommentSubspecies: Thamnophis rufipunctatus nigronuchalis THOMPSON 1957 has been elevated to full species status. Thamnophis rufipunctatus unilabialis TANNER 1985 has been considered as a synonym of Thamnophis rufipunctatus (ROSSMAN et al. 1996: 39) but more recently elevated to evolutionary species (WOOD et al. 2011).

Synonymy: That status of Eutaenia (Thamnophis) angustirostris remains unclear, see Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996. Related to Thamnophis (Nerodia) rufipunctatus and T. melanogaster. T. angustirostris is a nomen dubium fide ROSSMAN et al. 1996] and a “species inquirenda” by WALLACH et al. 2014: 828.

Distribution: T. angustirostris has been reported from Mexico (Distrito Federal, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora, Durango, Sonora); Type locality: Parras, Coahuila. However, given its uncertain status we do not include it in the herpetofauna of Mexico. Not listed in Liner 1994, 2007, nor by Heimes 2016.

Distribution: see map in Wood et al. 2011: 3838. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “rufus” = red and “punctum” = spot. 
References
  • Bergamini, Rex R., Christy, Kayla, Morton, Michael and Nowak, Erika M. 2017. Geographic Distribution: Thamnophis rufipunctatus (Narrow-headed Gartersnake) Herpetological Review 48 (1): 132 - get paper here
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Boundy, Jeff 1994. Thamnophis rufipunctatus (narrow-headed garter snake). Color and size. Herpetological Review 25 (3): 126-127 - get paper here
  • Bourguignon, T. 2002. Strumpfbandnattern: Herkunft - Pflege - Arten. E. Ulmer Verlag, 125 pp.
  • Chiasson,R.B. & LOWE,C.H. 1989. Ultrastructural scale pattens in Nerodia and Thamnophis. Journal of Herpetology 23 (2): 109-118 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1875. In Yarrow, H.C., Report upon the collections of batrachians and reptiles made in portions of Nevada, Utah, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, during the years 871, 1872, 1873, and 1874, Chapter IV, L, pp. 509-584, In: Report upon geograph Government Printing office, Washington D.C. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1886. Thirteenth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 23: 271-287 [1885] - get paper here
  • Cotten, T.B., Love-Chezem, T.S., Westeen, E.P., Shaw, C.J. & Fadlovich, R. 2017. Thamnophis rufipunctatus (Narrow-headed Gartersnake) Habitat. Herpetological Review 48 (3): 686-687.
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • de Queiroz,K. & LAWSON,R. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of the garter snakes based on DNA sequence and allozyme vatiation. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 53: 209-229 - get paper here
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. & Chlebowy, J. 2001. Strumpfbandnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. & Grübner, D. 2006. Überblick über die Gattung Thamnophis. Draco 6 (25): 6-24 - get paper here
  • Hibbitts, Troy D. & Lee A. Fitzgerald 2005. Morphological and ecological convergence in two natricine snakes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society<br />85: 363–371 - get paper here
  • Kennicott, R. 1860. Descriptions of new species of North American serpents in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 328-338 - get paper here
  • Liner, E.A. 1994. Scientific and common names for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Mexico in English and Spanish. Herpetological Circular 23: 1-113
  • Lowe, C.H. 1955. Generic Status of the Aquatic Snake Thamnophis angustirostris. Copeia 1955 (4): 307-309 - get paper here
  • Nowak, E.M., and M.A. Santana-Bendix. 2003. Distribution, ecology, and management recommendations for the Narrow-headed Garter Snake (Thamnophis rufipunctatus) in Oak Creek, Arizona - part 2. Sonoran Herpetologist 16 (11):98-101. - get paper here
  • Nowak, E.M., and M.A. Santana-Bendix. 2003. Distribution, ecology, and management recommendations for the Narrow-headed Garter Snake (Thamnophis rufipunctatus) in Oak Creek, Arizona - part 1. Sonoran Herpetologist 16 (10):86-89. - get paper here
  • Painter, Charles W.;Hibbitts, Toby J. 1996. Thamnophis rufipunctatus (Narrow-headed garter snake). Maximum size. Herpetological Review 27 (3): 147 - get paper here
  • Queiroz, Alan de; Robin Lawson and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of North American Garter Snakes (Thamnophis) Based on Four Mitochondrial Genes: How Much DNA Sequence Is Enough?. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 315-329 - get paper here
  • Rossman, Douglas A.; Ford, Neil B. & Seigel, Richard A. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, xx + 332 + pp.
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1942. The synonymy of the garter snakes (Thamnophis), with notes on Mexican and Central American species. Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society 27 (3 and 4): 97-123
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1943. Summary of the collections of snakes and crocodilians made in Mexico under the Walter Rathbone Bacon Traveling Scholarship. Proceeding of the U. S. National Museum, 93 (3169): 393-504 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. and David Chiszar 2003. The checkered nomenclatural history of the Narrow-headed Garter Snake, Thamnophis rufipunctatus (Cope). Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 38 (3):46-48 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Tanner W W 1990. Thamnophis rufipunctatus (Cope). Narrow-headed garter snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 505: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1959. A new Thamnophis from western Chihuahua with notes on four other species. Herpetologica 15 (4): 165-172 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1985. Snakes of Western Chihuahua. Great Basin Naturalist 45 (4): 615-676 - get paper here
  • Thompson, Fred G. 1957. A new Mexican gartersnake (Genus Thamnophis) with notes on related forms. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan (584): 1-10
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Trápaga 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
  • Wood, Dustin A.; A. G. Vandergast, J . A. Lemos Espinal, R. N. Fisher & A. T. Holycross 2011. REFUGIAL ISOLATION AND DIVERGENCE IN THE NARROWHEAD GARTER SNAKE SPECIES COMPLEX (THAMNOPHIS RUFIPUNCTATUS) AS REVEALED BY MULTILOCUS DNA SEQUENCE DATA. Molecular Ecology 20: 3856–3878 - get paper here
 
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