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Thamnophis scaliger (JAN, 1863)

IUCN Red List - Thamnophis scaliger - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Short-tail Alpine Garter Snake
G: Mexikanische Hochland-Strumpfbandnatter
S: Jarretera Alpina Cola-corta 
SynonymTropidonotus scaliger JAN 1863:70
Tropidonotus scaliger JAN 1865: 214
Tropidonotus scaliger — BOULENGER 1893: 203
Thamnophis scalaris scaliger — SMITH 1942
Thamnophis scalaris scaliger — TAYLOR 1949: 204
Thamnophis scaliger — LINER 1994
Thamnophis scaliger — LINER 2007
Thamnophis scaliger — WALLACH et al. 2014: 726 
DistributionMexico (Jalisco, Aguascalientes [07798], Michoacan, San Luis Potosí, Puebla, Guanajuato, Veracruz)

Type locality: unknown (SMITH & TAYLOR 1945); neotype locality: Pedregal de San Angel, Ciudad Universitaria, Delegación Coyoacán, Distrito Federal, Mexico.  
TypesNeotype: MZFC 2001, adult female, designated by Rossman 1997; Holotype: MSNM (Milan Museum), lost (no locality given by Jan 1863, 1865) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Supralabials usually seven; eye relatively small; scale rows usually 19-19-17, never 17-17-15, occasionally 17-19-17, rarely 17-19-15; ventral 136 to 151 in males, 135 to 150 in females; caudals 51 to 74 in males, 47 to 65 in females; a single row of spots on each side, seldom two rows; spots as a rule larger, more rectangular, than in s. scalars; head pattern as in latter.” (Smith 1942: 103) 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is derived from the Latin word scala, meaning "ladder," plus the suffix-ger, meaning "the bearer of," in reference to the ladder-like dorsal pattern (LEMOS-ESPINAL & DIXON 2013). 
  • Bol, Steven 2017. A rare and fascinating species of Garter snake: the Short-tail Alpine Garter Snake Thamnophis scaliger Jan, 1863. Litteratura Serpentium 37 (2): 53-76 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Bourguignon, T. 2002. Strumpfbandnattern: Herkunft - Pflege - Arten. E. Ulmer Verlag, 125 pp.
  • Burbrink FT, Futterman I. 2019. Female‐ biased gape and body-size dimorphism in the New World watersnakes (tribe: Thamnophiini) oppose predictions from Rensch's rule. Ecol Evol. 00:1–10
  • Carbajal-Márquez, Rubén A. and Gustavo E. Quintero-Díaz 2016. The Herpetofauna of Aguascalientes, México. Revista Mexicana de Herpetología 2(1):
  • Feriche, Mónica; Senda Reguera, Xavier Santos, Estrella Mociño-Deloya, Kirk Setser, Juan M. Pleguezuelos 2011. Biometry and pholidosis of Thamnophis scaliger: an atypical example of sexual dimorphism in snakes. Basic and Applied Herpetology 25: 105-113 - get paper here
  • Feriche, Mónica; Senda Reguera,Xavier Santos, Estrella Mociño-Deloya,Kirk Setser,Juan M. Pleguezuelos 2016. Female Reproduction in Thamnophis scaliger: The Significance of Parturition Timing. Journal of Herpetology 50 (2): 209-215 - get paper here
  • González Fernández A, Manjarrez J, García-Vázquez U, D’Addario M, Sunny A. 2017. Environmental niche modeling; present and future potential distribution of garter snakes species from the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. PeerJ Preprints 5:e3476v1 - get paper here
  • Grünwald, Christoph Imre, Nadia Pérez-Rivera, Iván Trinidad Ahumada-Carrillo, Héctor Franz-Chávez and Brandon Thomas La Forest. 2016. New distributional records for the herpetofauna of Mexico. Herpetological Review 47 (1): 85-90 - get paper here
  • HALLAS, JOSHUA M.; THOMAS L. PARCHMAN & CHRIS R. FELDMAN. 2021. Phylogenomic analyses resolve relationships among garter snakes (Thamnophis: Natricinae: Colubridae) and elucidate biogeographic history and morphological evolution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 107374. [2022 in print] - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. & Chlebowy, J. 2001. Strumpfbandnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Jan, G. 1863. Elenco Sistematico degli Ofidi descriti e disegnati per l'Iconografia Generale. Milano, A. Lombardi. vii + 143 pp. - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of the State of Mexico, Mexico with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 953: 137-159 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Mexico City, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 951: 109-131 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 753: 83-106 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal, Julio A. and James R. Dixon 2013. Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí. Eagle Mountain Publishing, xii + 300 pp.
  • Leyte-Manrique A, Mata-Silva V, Báez-Montes O, Fucsko LA, DeSantis DL, García-Padilla E, Rocha A, Johnson JD, Porras LW, Wilson LD. 2022. The herpetofauna of Guanajuato, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 16(2) [General Section: 133–180 (e321) - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Queiroz, Alan de; Robin Lawson and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of North American Garter Snakes (Thamnophis) Based on Four Mitochondrial Genes: How Much DNA Sequence Is Enough? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 315-329 - get paper here
  • Quintero-Díaz, Gustavo E. and Rubén Alonso Carbajal-Márquez. 2016. Distribution Notes. Thamnophis scaliger (Jan, 1863). Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 203 - get paper here
  • Quintero-Díaz,G. et al. 1999. Geographic distribution: Thamnophis scaliger. Herpetological Review 30 (4): 237 - get paper here
  • Rossman, D.A. & Gongora,G.L. 1997. Variation in the mexican garter snake Thamnophis scalaris COPE and the taxonomic status of T. scaliger (JAN). Occ. Pap. Mus. Nat. Sci., Louisiana State Univ., 74: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Rossman, Douglas A.; Ford, Neil B. & Seigel, Richard A. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, xx + 332 + pp.
  • Schmidt, Karl P.;Shannon, Frederick A. 1947. Notes on amphibians and reptiles of Michoacan, Mexico. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Natural History 31 (9): 63-85
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1942. The synonymy of the garter snakes (Thamnophis), with notes on Mexican and Central American species. Zoologica, Scientific Contributions of the New York Zoological Society 27 (3 and 4): 97-123 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.; Nixon, C. William; Smith, Philip W. 1950. Mexican and Central American garter snakes (Thamnophis) in the British Museum (Natural History). Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 41 (282): 571-584 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1949. A preliminary account of the herpetology of the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 33 (2): 169-215 - get paper here
  • Torres-Hernández, LA, Ramírez-Bautista A, Cruz-Elizalde R, Hernández-Salinas U, Berriozabal-Islas C, DeSantis DL, Johnson JD, Rocha A, García-Padilla E, Mata-Silva V, Fucsko LA, and Wilson LD. 2021. The herpetofauna of Veracruz, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 15(2) [General Section]: 72–155 - get paper here
  • Vaca-Leon, Octavio Ivan Martinez; Sheridan Jael Maya-García, Javier Manjarrez, Luis Ernesto Estrada-García 2019. Snake interspecific aggregation: Crotalus polystictus (Cope, 1865), Thamnophis eques (Reuss, 1834) and T. scaliger (Jan, 1863). Herpetology Notes 12: 327-329 - get paper here
  • Vázquez Díaz, Joel;Quintero Díaz, Gustavo E. 2005. Anfibios y Reptiles de Aguascalientes [2nd ed.]. CONABIO, CIEMA, 318 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Woolrich-Piña, G. A., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, J. D. Johnson, V. Mata-Silva, and L. D. Wilson 2017. The herpetofauna of Puebla, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 791–884 - get paper here
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