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Thamnophis validus (KENNICOTT, 1860)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesThamnophis validus celaeno (COPE 1860)
Thamnophis validus isabellae (CONANT 1953)
Thamnophis validus thamnophisoides (CONANT 1961)
Thamnophis validus validus (KENNICOTT 1860) 
Common NamesE: West Coast Garter Snake
G: Mexikanische Westküsten-Strumpfbandnatter 
SynonymRegina valida KENNICOTT 1860: 334
Tropidonotus quadriserialis FISCHER 1879 (fide SMITH 1976)
Tropidonotus validus — BOULENGER 1893: 237
Natrix valida —VAN DENBURGH 1895: 152
Natrix valida — CONANT 1946
Natrix valida— SMITH & SMITH 1976
Nerodia valida — STEBBINS 1985: 244
Nerodia valida — MCCRANIE & MCALLISTER 1988
Nerodia valida - CHIASSON & LOWE 1989
Thamnophis validus - DE QUEIROZ & LAWSON 1994
Thamnophis valida — LINER 1994
Nerodia valida — HEATWOLE 1999
Thamnophis valida — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2002
Thamnophis validus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 727
Thamnophis validus — HEIMES 2016: 385

Thamnophis valida celaeno (COPE 1860)
Tropidonotus celaeno COPE 1860: 341
Natrix celaeno — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 154
Natrix valida celaeno — LEVITON & BANTA 1964
Nerodia valida celaeno — SHINE 1994

Thamnophis valida isabellae (CONANT 1953)
Nerodia valida isabellae — SHINE 1994 
DistributionMexico (Baja California Sur, Chihuahua [LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2002, HR 33: 325], Jalisco)

Type locality: "Durango, Mexico," (in error). Unknown; possibly along Río Presidio or coastal plain of southern  
Reproductionviviparous. 
TypesHolotype: USNM 1309, adult female (D.N. Couch).
Holotype: ZMH R04345 [Tropidonotus quadriserialis] 
CommentHabitat: at least partially coastal and thus considered (partially) “marine” (according to WORMS). 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. London (Taylor & Francis), 448 pp. - get paper here
  • Bourguignon, T. 2002. Strumpfbandnattern: Herkunft - Pflege - Arten. E. Ulmer Verlag, 125 pp.
  • Chiasson,R.B. & LOWE,C.H. 1989. Ultrastructural scale pattens in Nerodia and Thamnophis. Journal of Herpetology 23 (2): 109-118 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger 1946. Studies on North American water snakes - II. The subspecies of Natrix valida. American Midland Naturalist 35 (1): 250-275 - get paper here
  • Conant, Roger 1953. Three new water snakes of the genus Natrix from Mexico. Natural History Miscellanea (126): 1-9
  • Conant, Roger 1961. A new water snake from Mexico, with notes on anal plates and apical pits in Natrix and Thamnophis. American Museum Novitates (2060): 1-22 - get paper here
  • Cruz-Sáenz, Daniel, Ángeles Penilla-Juarez and David Lazcano. 2013. Notes on the Herpetofauna of Western Mexico 10: Herpetofauna of the Protected Natural Area “Estero El Salado” and Adjacent Areas in Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 48 (9):117-119
  • de Queiroz,K. & LAWSON,R. 1994. Phylogenetic relationships of the garter snakes based on DNA sequence and allozyme vatiation. Biol. J. Linnean Soc. 53: 209-229 - get paper here
  • García, A. & Ceballos, G. 1994. GUIA DE CAMPO DE LOS 'REPTILES Y ANFIBIOS DE LA COSTA DE JALISCO, MEXICO. FUNDACION ECOLOGICA DE CUIXMALA, A.C. INSTITUTO DE BIOLOGIA, UNAM
  • Hallmen, M. & Chlebowy, J. 2001. Strumpfbandnattern. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Heatwole, H. 1999. Sea snakes, 2nd ed. Krieger, Malabar, 148 pp. [review in Copeia 2000 (4): 1136]
  • Heimes, P. 2016. Snakes of Mexico. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 572 pp
  • Kennicott, R. 1860. Descriptions of new species of North American serpents in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 12: 328-338 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1964. Midwinter reconnaissance of the herpetofauna of the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 30 (7): 127-156 - get paper here
  • McCranie J R; McAllister C T 1988. Nerodia valida (Kennicott). Mexican west coast water snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 431: 1-3 - get paper here
  • Mocquard, M.F. 1899. Contribution a la faune herpétologique de la Basse-Californie. Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Natur.Paris, 4th Series, Vol. 1: 297-343 + plates XI-XIII - get paper here
  • Queiroz, Alan de; Robin Lawson and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2002. Phylogenetic Relationships of North American Garter Snakes (Thamnophis) Based on Four Mitochondrial Genes: How Much DNA Sequence Is Enough?. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 22: 315-329 - get paper here
  • Rossman, Douglas A.; Ford, Neil B. & Seigel, Richard A. 1996. The Garter Snakes: Evolution and Ecology. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, xx + 332 + pp.
  • Shine, Richard 1994. Sexual size dimorphism in snakes revisited. Copeia 1994 (2): 326-346 - get paper here
  • Smith,H.M. & Smith,R.B. 1976. Synopsis of the Herpetofauna of Mexico. Vol. III. Source analysis and index for Mexican reptiles. John Johnson, North Bennington, Vermont.
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Taylor, Edward H. 1936. Notes on the Herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sinaloa. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (20): 505-537 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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