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Thamnophis validus (KENNICOTT, 1860)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesThamnophis validus celaeno (COPE 1861)
Thamnophis validus isabellae (CONANT 1953)
Thamnophis validus thamnophisoides (CONANT 1961)
Thamnophis validus validus (KENNICOTT 1860) 
Common NamesE: West Coast Garter Snake
G: Mexikanische Westküsten-Strumpfbandnatter
S: Jarretera Mexicana del Pacifico 
SynonymRegina valida KENNICOTT 1860: 334
Tropidonotus tephropleura COPE 1860
Tropidonotus quadriserialis FISCHER 1879 (fide SMITH 1976)
Tropidonotus validus — BOULENGER 1893: 237
Natrix valida — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 152
Natrix valida — TAYLOR 1939
Natrix valida — CONANT 1946
Natrix valida valida — FUGLER & DIXON 1961
Natrix valida valida — HARDY 1969: 186
Natrix valida— SMITH & SMITH 1976
Nerodia valida — STEBBINS 1985: 244
Nerodia valida — MCCRANIE & MCALLISTER 1988
Nerodia valida — CHIASSON & LOWE 1989
Thamnophis validus — DE QUEIROZ & LAWSON 1994
Thamnophis valida — LINER 1994
Nerodia valida — HEATWOLE 1999
Thamnophis valida — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2002
Thamnophis validus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 727
Thamnophis validus — HEIMES 2016: 385

Thamnophis validus celaeno (COPE 1861)
Tropidonotus celaeno COPE 1861: 341
Natrix celaeno — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 154
Natrix valida celaeno — LEVITON & BANTA 1964
Nerodia valida celaeno — MCCRANIE 1988
Nerodia valida celaeno — SHINE 1994

Thamnophis validus isabellae (CONANT 1953)
Natrix valida isabellae CONANT 1953
Nerodia valida isabellae — MCCRANIE 1988
Nerodia valida isabellae — SHINE 1994

Thamnophis validus thamnophisoides (CONANT 1961)
Natrix valida thamnophisoides CONANT 1961: 2
Nerodia valida thamnophisoides — MCCRANIE 1988
Thamnophis validus thamnophisoides — ROSSMAN 1996: 39
Thamnophis validus thamnophisoides — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008: 148 
DistributionMexico (Baja California Sur, Chihuahua [LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2002, HR 33: 325], Jalisco, Sonora, Guerrero, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Oaxaca)

Type locality: "Durango, Mexico," (in error). Unknown; corrected to Río Presidio or coastal plain of southern Mexico fide Conant (1969: 83).

celaeno: Mexico (Baja California); Type locality: "Cape St. Lucas, Lower California", revised to "San Jose River, Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico" by Cochran, 1961:222

isabellae: Mexico (Guerrero); Type locality: “Pie de la Cuesta, Laguna Coyuca, Guerrero."

thamnophisoides: Mexico (Nayarit); Type locality: “along the Rio San Cayetano (Rio de Tepic on some maps and also known locally as the Rio Mololoa), approximately 3.5 miles south-east of Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico”.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 1309, adult female (D.N. Couch).
Holotype: ZMH R04345 [quadriserialis]
Holotype: AMNH 84091, adult female, collected July 3 or 4, 1959 by Roger Conant; paratypes: CNHM [thamnophisoides]
Holotype: AMNH 73171, adult collected October 1949, by Roger Conant. [isabellae]
Holotype: USNM 1309 [validus]
Holotype: USNM 341 [celaeno]
Syntypes: USNM 4683, 131748 [Tropidonotus tephropleura] 
CommentHabitat: at least partially coastal and thus considered (partially) “marine” (according to WORMS).

NCBI taxon ID: 426693 [celaeno]
NCBI taxon ID: 426692 [isabellae]
NCBI taxon ID: 174673 [thamnophisoides]
NCBI taxon ID: 426691 [validus] 
EtymologyThe name valida is derived from the Latin word validus, meaning powerful or strong.

The subspecies celaeno was named after Greek “kelainos”, meaning black or dark, in reference to the dorsal coloration.

T. v. isabelleae honors Isabelle Hunt Conant, who accompanied her husband Roger when the type specimen was collected.

T. v. thamnophisoides refers to the garter snake genus Thamnophis, which this subspecies resembles (the subspecies was originally described in the genus Regina). 
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