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Tiliqua rugosa (GRAY, 1825)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Egerniinae, Sauria (lizards) 
SubspeciesTiliqua rugosa asper GRAY 1845
Tiliqua rugosa konowi MERTENS 1958
Tiliqua rugosa rugosa GRAY 1825
Tiliqua rugosa palarra SHEA 2000 
Common NamesE: Shingleback Lizard, Shingle-Back, Stumpy Tail Lizard, Pinecone lizard, Sleepy Lizard
G: Tannenzapfenechse 
SynonymTrachydosaurus rugosus GRAY 1825: 201
Scincus peronii WAGLER 1830: 163 (nomen nudum)
Trachysaurus peronii WAGLER 1833 (nom. nov. pro Trachydosaurus rugosus)
Brachydactylus typicus SMITH 1834
Scincus pachyurus GRAY 1838: 288 (nomen nudum)
Trachysaurus rugosus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 754
Trachydosaurus asper GRAY 1845: 103
Trachydisaurus [sic] rugosus — KREFFT 1873: 315
Trachydosaurus asper — HAACKE 1885: 435
Trachysaurus rugosus — GLAUERT 1960
Tiliqua rugosa — SHEA 1990
Tiliqua rugosa - FRANK & RAMUS 1995
Trachydosaurus rugosus — COGGER 2000: 583
Tiliqua rugosa — BONETTI 2002: 162

Tiliqua rugosa konowi MERTENS 1958
Tiliqua rugosa konowi — STORR et al. 1999

Trachydosaurus rugosa palarra SHEA 2000
Tiliqua rugosa palarra SHEA 2000 
DistributionAustralia (S West Australia, S South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales except coastal areas, S/C Queensland)

asper: E Australia
rugosa: W Australia
konowi: Rottnest Island, West Australia.
palarra: West Australia, Shark Bay area. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.5.1, no locality specified in original description; (King George's Sound, W. A. fide Gray 1826).
Holotype: BMNH stuffed, unnumbered, from Swan River, W. A. [Brachydactylus typicus].
Syntypes: BMNH xv.8l. a-b, BMNH, from Adelaide, S. A. [Trachydosaurus asper].
Holotype: WAM 12721, from Rottnest Is., W. A. [Trachydosaurus rugosus konowi] 
CommentSynonymy partly after COGGER 1983. This is one of the few reptile species in which monogamy has been observed (Chapple 2003). 
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp.
  • Cogger,H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol.5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Ellis, D.J.; Firth, B.T. & Belan, I. 2006. Circadian rhythm of behavioral thermoregulation in the Sleepy Lizard (Tiliqua rugosa). Herpetologica 63 (3): 259-265 - get paper here
  • Gardner, Michael G.; Juan J. Sanchez;Rachael Y. Dudaniec; <br />Leah Rheinberger; Annabel L. Smith; 2007. Tiliqua rugosa microsatellites: isolation via enrichment and characterisation of loci for multiplex PCR in T. rugosa and the endangered T. adelaidensis. Conserv. Genet. 9: 233–237 [print: 2008]
  • Glauert, L. 1960. Herpetological miscellanea. XII. The family Scincidae in Western Australia. Pt. 1. The genera Tiliqua, Trachysaurus and Egernia. Western Australian Naturalist 7 (3): 67-77
  • Gray, J. E. 1826. Reptilia. Appendix in: King, P. P. Narrative of a survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia performed between the years 1818 and 1822. London: John Murray 2: 424-434
  • Gray, J. E. 1838. Catalogue of the slender-tongued saurians, with descriptions of many new genera and species. Part 2. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 1: 287-293 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Gray, J.E. 1825. A synopsis of the genera of reptiles and Amphibia, with a description of some new species. Annals of Philosophy, 10:193—217 - get paper here
  • Green, Darren 1995. A comparison of three litters in the shingleback lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 25 (1): 42-43
  • Haacke, W. 1885. Über eine neue Art uterinaler Brutpflege bei Reptilien. Zool. Anz. 8: 435-439 - get paper here
  • Kay, G.M.; D. Michael; M. Crane; S. Okada; C. MacGregor; D. Florance; D. Trengove; L. McBurney; D. B 2013. A list of reptiles and amphibians from Box Gum Grassy Woodlands in south-eastern Australia. Check List 9 (3):476-481 - get paper here
  • Krefft,G. 1873. Fabulous Australian animals. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 11: 315-316 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2006. Eine Anlage zur Nachzucht von Tannenzapfenechsen. Terraria 1 (1): 90-93
  • Mertens, R. 1958. Neue Eidechsen aus Australien. Senckenbergiana Biologica, 39:51-56.
  • Michael, D.R.; D.B. Lindenmayer; M. Crane; C. MacGregor; R. Montague-Drake; L. McBurney. 2011. Reptilia, Murray catchment, New South Wales, southeastern Australia. Check List 7 (1):25-29 - get paper here
  • Mitchell, F. J. 1950. The scincid genera Egernia and Tiliqua (Lacertilia). Rec. South Austral. Mus. 9: 275-308 - get paper here
  • Pachmann, A. 2009. Im Outback West-Australiens. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (78): 11-12 - get paper here
  • Sare, Stephen; Schwaner, Terry D.; Georges, Arthur 1990. Genetic variation among insular populations of the sleepy lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus Gray (Squamata: Scinidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38 (6): 603 - get paper here
  • Shea G M. 1990. The genera Tiliqua and Cyclodomorphus (Lacertilia: Scincidae): generic diagnoses and systematic relationships. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 29 (2): 495-520.
  • Shea, G.M. 2000. Die Shark-Bay-Tannenzapfenechse Tiliqua rugosa palarra subsp. nov. – in: HAUSCHILD, A., R. HITZ, K. HENLE, G.M. SHEA & H. WERNING (Hrsg.): Blauzungenskinke. Beiträge zu Tiliqua und Cyclodomorphus, pp. 108-112. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 287 pp. - get paper here
  • Smith, A. 1834. Descriptions of Trichophorus flaviventris, Halcyon Swainsonii, H. senegaloides, Edolius Ludwigii, lamportornis rufiventris, and a new saurian (Brachydactylus typicus) from Swan River. South African Quart. J. 2 (2): 143-144
  • Storr, G. M.; L. A. Smith, and R. E. Johnstone 1999. Lizards of Western Australia. I. Skinks. Revised Edition. Western Australian Museum
  • Switak, Karl H. 1997. Shingle-backed skinks [Trachydosaurus rugosus]. Reptiles 5 (2): 48-69
  • Wagler, J. 1833. Descriptiones et icones amphibiorum. Vol. 3. J. G. Cotttae, Stuttgartiae, Monachii et Tubingiae, xxv-xxxvi pp.
  • Wagler, Jean G. 1830. Natürliches System der Amphibien, mit vorangehender Classification der Säugetiere und Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Zoologie. 1.0. Cotta, München, Stuttgart, and Tübingen, 354 pp.
  • Wilson,S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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