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Tiliqua rugosa (GRAY, 1825)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Egerniinae (Tiliquini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesTiliqua rugosa aspera GRAY 1845
Tiliqua rugosa konowi MERTENS 1958
Tiliqua rugosa rugosa GRAY 1825
Tiliqua rugosa palarra SHEA 2000 
Common NamesE: Shingleback Lizard, Shingle-Back, Stumpy Tail Lizard, Pinecone lizard, Sleepy Lizard
G: Tannenzapfenechse 
SynonymTrachydosaurus rugosus GRAY 1825: 201
Scincus peronii WAGLER 1830: 163 (nomen nudum)
Trachysaurus peronii WAGLER 1833 (nom. nov. pro Trachydosaurus rugosus)
Brachydactylus typicus SMITH 1834
Scincus pachyurus GRAY 1839: 288 (nomen nudum)
Tachydosaurus rugosus — GRAY 1839: 288 (in error)
Trachysaurus rugosus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 754
Trachydisaurus [sic] rugosus — KREFFT 1873: 315
Trachysaurus rugosus — LUCAS & FROST 1894: 61
Trachysaurus rugosus — GLAUERT 1960: 71
Tiliqua rugosa — SHEA 1990
Tiliqua rugosa — FRANK & RAMUS 1995
Trachydosaurus rugosus — COGGER 2000: 583
Tiliqua rugosa — BONETTI 2002: 162

Tiliqua rugosa aspera GRAY 1845
Trachydosaurus asper GRAY 1845: 103
Trachydosaurus asper — HAACKE 1885: 435
Tiliqua rugosa aspera — SHEA 2000: 110
Tiliqua rugosa aspera — WILSON & SWAN 2013: 370

Tiliqua rugosa konowi MERTENS 1958
Tiliqua rugosa konowi — STORR et al. 1999
Tiliqua rugosa konowi — SHEA 2000: 110

Tiliqua rugosa palarra SHEA 2000
Tiliqua rugosa palarra SHEA 2000: 108
Tiliqua rugosa palarra — WILSON & SWAN 2013: 370 
DistributionAustralia (S Western Australia, S South Australia, Victoria, New South Wales except coastal areas, S/C Queensland)

asper: E Australia; Type locality: Adelaide, S. A.

rugosa: W Australia; Type locality: no locality specified in original description; (King George's Sound, W. A., collected Captain P.P. King, fide Gray 1826).

konowi: Rottnest Island, Western Australia; Type locality: Rottnest Island, Western Australia

palarra: Western Australia, Shark Bay area; Type locality: amala Station rubbish tip, Western Australia.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.8.5.1, no locality specified in original description; (King George's Sound, W. A. fide Gray 1826).
Holotype: BMNH stuffed, unnumbered, from Swan River, W. A. [Brachydactylus typicus].
Syntypes: BMNH xv.81. a-b, BMNH (formerly xv.81c-d), from Adelaide, S. A. [asper]
Holotype: WAM 12721, from Rottnest Is., W. A. [konowi]
Holotype: WAM R167700 (was AMS R 133199); paratypes: AM, SAM, WAM, RMNH [palarra] 
CommentSynonymy partly after COGGER 1983 who listed asper and konowi as synonyms of T. rugosa.

Behavior: This is one of the few reptile species in which monogamy has been observed (Chapple 2003).

Distribution: see map in Shea 2000 (includes all 4 subspecies). 
EtymologyPresumably named after the Latin rugosus (rough) in reference to the enlarged roughened dorsal scales. (G. Shea, pers. comm., 9 Feb 2024) 
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Bull, C.M., A. McNally & G. Dubas 1991. Asynchronous Seasonal Activity of Male and Female Sleepy Lizards, Tiliqua rugosa Journal of Herpetology 25 (4): 436-441. - get paper here
  • Bull, C.M., M. Doherty, L.R. Schulze & Y. Pamula 1994. Recognition of Offspring by Females of the Australian Skink, Tiliqua rugosa Journal of Herpetology 28 (1): 117-120. - get paper here
  • Bull, C.M., Y. Pamula & L. Schulze 1993. Parturition in the Sleepy Lizard, Tiliqua rugosa Journal of Herpetology 27 (4): 489-492. - get paper here
  • CHIACCHIO, MICHELE; ANNEGRET GRIMM-SEYFARTH<br />KLAUS HENLE<br /> AND JEAN-BAPTISTE MIHOUB 2020. Water availability as a major climatic driver of taxonomic and functional diversity in a desert reptile community. Ecosphere 11(7):e03190. 10.1002/ecs2.3190 - get paper here
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Couper, P., Covacevich, J., Amey, A. & Baker, A. 2006. The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
  • Dubas, G. & C.M. Bull 1992. Food Addition and Home Range Size of the Lizard Tiliqua rugosa Herpetologica 48 (3): 301-306. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Ellis, D.J.; Firth, B.T. & Belan, I. 2006. Circadian rhythm of behavioral thermoregulation in the Sleepy Lizard (Tiliqua rugosa). Herpetologica 63 (3): 259-265 - get paper here
  • Gardner, Michael G.; Juan J. Sanchez;Rachael Y. Dudaniec; Leah Rheinberger; Annabel L. Smith; Kathleen M. Saint 2007. Tiliqua rugosa microsatellites: isolation via enrichment and characterisation of loci for multiplex PCR in T. rugosa and the endangered T. adelaidensis. Conservation Genetics 9: 233–237 [print: 2008] - get paper here
  • Glauert, L. 1960. Herpetological miscellanea. XII. The family Scincidae in Western Australia. Pt. 1. The genera Tiliqua, Trachysaurus and Egernia. Western Australian Naturalist 7 (3): 67-77 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1826. Reptilia. Appendix in: King, P. P. Narrative of a survey of the Intertropical and Western Coasts of Australia performed between the years 1818 and 1822. London: John Murray 2: 424-434
  • Gray, J. E. 1839. Catalogue of the slender-tongued saurians, with descriptions of many new genera and species. Part 2. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 2 (10): 287-293 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Gray, J.E. 1825. A synopsis of the genera of reptiles and Amphibia, with a description of some new species. Annals of Philosophy, 10:193—217 - get paper here
  • Green, Darren 1995. A comparison of three litters in the shingleback lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 25 (1): 42-43
  • Haacke, W. 1885. Über eine neue Art uterinaler Brutpflege bei Reptilien. Zool. Anz. 8: 435-439 - get paper here
  • Hallermann, J. 2020. An annotated list of reptiles and amphibians from the 1905 Hamburg expedition to southwest Australia deposited in the Zoological Museum Hamburg. Evolutionary Systematics 4: 61 - get paper here
  • Hojat Ansari, M., Cooper, S. J. B., Schwarz, M. P., Ebrahimi, M., Dolman, G., Reinberger, L., … Gardner, M. G. 2018. Plio-Pleistocene diversification and biogeographic barriers in southern Australia reflected in the phylogeography of a widespread and common lizard species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Joger, U. E. & E. Wallikewitz & A. Hauschild 1986. Hormon- und serochemische Untersuchungen zur Bestimmung des Geschlechtes und zur Überprüfung des Gesundheitszustands bei Trachydosaurus rugosus (GRAY, 1827) (Sauria: Scincidae). Salamandra 22 (1): 21-28 - get paper here
  • Kay, G.M.; D. Michael; M. Crane; S. Okada; C. MacGregor; D. Florance; D. Trengove; L. McBurney; D. Blair; D.B. Lindenmayer. 2013. A list of reptiles and amphibians from Box Gum Grassy Woodlands in south-eastern Australia. Check List 9 (3):476-481 - get paper here
  • Kerr, G.D. & C.M. Bull 2004. Microhabitat Use by the Scincid Lizard Tiliqua rugosa: Exploiting Natural Temperature Gradients beneath Plant Canopies Journal of Herpetology 38 (4): 536-545. - get paper here
  • Kerr, G.D., C.M. Bull & D. Mackay 2004. Human Disturbance and Stride Frequency in the Sleepy Lizard (Tiliqua rugosa): Implications for Behavioral Studies Journal of Herpetology 38 (4): 519-526. - get paper here
  • Krefft,G. 1873. Fabulous Australian animals. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 11: 315-316 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2006. Eine Anlage zur Nachzucht von Tannenzapfenechsen. Terraria 1 (1): 90-93
  • Lucas, A. H. S. & Frost, C. 1894. The lizards indigenous to Victoria. Proc. R. Soc. Vict. (ns) 6: 24-92 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1958. Neue Eidechsen aus Australien. Senckenbergiana Biologica 39:51-56.
  • Michael, D.R.; D.B. Lindenmayer; M. Crane; C. MacGregor; R. Montague-Drake; L. McBurney. 2011. Reptilia, Murray catchment, New South Wales, southeastern Australia. Check List 7 (1):25-29 - get paper here
  • Mitchell, F. J. 1950. The scincid genera Egernia and Tiliqua (Lacertilia). Rec. South Austral. Mus. 9: 275-308 - get paper here
  • Norval, Gerrut; Jessica Clayton, Robert D. Sharrad, and Michael G. Gardner 2018. Notes on the stomach contents of a juvenile Sleepy Lizard, Tiliqua rugosa (Gray 1825), killed by an Eastern Brown Snake, Pseudonaja textilis (Duméril, Bibron, and Duméril 1854) in South Australia. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 25 (3): 200–203 - get paper here
  • NORVAL, GERRUT; ROBERT D. SHARRAD & MICHAEL G. GARDNER. 2021. A mammal tick with a taste for lizard blood: parasitism by the kangaroo soft tick, (Ornithodoros gurneyi) on sleepy lizards (Tiliqua rugosa). Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases 101859. - get paper here
  • Norval, Gerrut; Robert D. Sharrad, and Michael G. Gardner 2019. Two instances in South Australia of Sleepy Lizards, Tiliqua rugosa (Gray 1825), feeding on plant species not previously recorded as part of this lizard’s diet. IRCF 26 (1): 54–55 - get paper here
  • Pachmann, A. 2009. Im Outback West-Australiens. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (78): 11-12 - get paper here
  • Payne, E., Sinn, D. L., Spiegel, O., Leu, S. T., Gardner, M. G., Godfrey, S. S., ... & Sih, A. 2021. Consistent after all: behavioural repeatability in a long-lived lizard across a 6-year field study. Animal Behaviour - get paper here
  • Sare, Stephen; Schwaner, Terry D.; Georges, Arthur 1990. Genetic variation among insular populations of the sleepy lizard, Trachydosaurus rugosus Gray (Squamata: Scinidae). Australian Journal of Zoology 38 (6): 603 - get paper here
  • Shea G M. 1990. The genera Tiliqua and Cyclodomorphus (Lacertilia: Scincidae): generic diagnoses and systematic relationships. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 29 (2): 495-520. - get paper here
  • Shea, G.M. 2000. Die Shark-Bay-Tannenzapfenechse Tiliqua rugosa palarra subsp. nov. – in: HAUSCHILD, A., R. HITZ, K. HENLE, G.M. SHEA & H. WERNING (Hrsg.): Blauzungenskinke. Beiträge zu Tiliqua und Cyclodomorphus, pp. 108-112. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 287 pp. - get paper here
  • Smith, A. 1834. Descriptions of Trichophorus flaviventris, Halcyon Swainsonii, H. senegaloides, Edolius Ludwigii, lamportornis rufiventris, and a new saurian (Brachydactylus typicus) from Swan River. South African Quart. J. 2 (2): 143-144
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  • Wagler, J. 1833. Descriptiones et icones amphibiorum. Vol. 3. J. G. Cotttae, Stuttgartiae, Monachii et Tubingiae, xxv-xxxvi pp. - get paper here
  • Wagler, Jean G. 1830. Natürliches System der Amphibien, mit vorangehender Classification der Säugetiere und Vögel. Ein Beitrag zur vergleichenden Zoologie. 1.0. Cotta, München, Stuttgart, and Tübingen, 354 pp. [1830-1832] - get paper here
  • While, Geoffrey M.;, David G. Chapple, Michael G. Gardner, Tobias Uller, and Martin J. Whiting 2015. Egernia lizards. Current Biology 25 (14): R593–R595, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.02.070 - get paper here
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  • Zdunek, Przemysław; John Sullivan 2023. Predation attempt by a Southern Heath Monitor, Varanus rosenbergi (Varanidae), on a Western Shingleback Lizard, Tiliqua rugosa (Scincidae), in Southwest Australia. Reptiles & Amphibians 30 (1): e18971 - get paper here
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