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Timon princeps (BLANFORD, 1874)

IUCN Red List - Timon princeps - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Lacertinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Zagrosian Lizard
G: Zagroseidechse; kurdistanica: Kurdische Zagroseidechse 
SynonymLacerta princeps BLANFORD 1874
Lacerta princeps — WETTSTEIN 1960: 192
Lacerta princeps — NIAZI 1976
Lacerta princeps — FRYNTA et al. 1997
Timon princeps — MAYER & BISCHOFF 1996: 169
Lacerta princeps princeps — GHAFFARI & PARSA 2007
Timon princeps — AHMADZADEH et al. 2012 
DistributionSW Iran (central Zagros Mts. at the Shiraz region), SE Turkey, NE Syria, N Iraq

Type locality: "near Niriz, about 100 miles east of Shiraz, S. Persia"  
TypesHolotype: ZSI 3351 
DiagnosisEiselt (1968, 1969) provided an extended description of T. p. kurdistanicus and distinguished it from Timon princeps princeps by the following characters: 17-19 gular scales (20-22 in T. p. princeps); 16-21 femoral pores on each side (13-17 in T. p. princeps); outer row of ventrals (marginals) keeled as are all flank scales (smooth in T. p. princeps), lower edge of subocular half or greater than half maximum length of shield (in T. p. princeps less than half maximum length of shield). 
CommentSynonymy: Mertens (1952 ) considered kurdistanica as a synonym of princeps.

Distribution: Timon princeps and Timon kurdistanicus are allopatric. See map in AHMADZADEH et al. 2012, 2016. See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. 
  • Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Morris Flecks, Miguel A. Carretero, Wolfgang Böhme, Flora Ihlow, Paschalia Kapli, Andreia Miraldo and Dennis Rödder 2016. Separate histories in both sides of the Mediterranean: phylogeny and niche evolution of ocellated lizards. Journal of Biogeography; DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12703 - get paper here
  • Bischoff, W. 2005. Die echten Eidechsen der Familie Lacertidae - eine Übersicht. Draco 5 (21): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Blanford, W.T. 1874. Descriptions of new Reptilia and Amphibia from Persia and Baluchistan. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 14: 31-35 - get paper here
  • BOSCH, H. A. J. IN DEN 1998. Erste vorläufige Daten zur Fortpflanzung von Timon princeps princeps (BLANFORD, 1874). Die Eidechse 9 (3): 77-81 - get paper here
  • BOSCH, H.A.J. IN DEN 1998. Terrarienbeobachtungen an Timon princeps. Die Eidechse 8 (3): 80-87 - get paper here
  • Eiselt, J. 1968. Ein Beitrag zur Taxonomie der Zagros Eidechse, Lacerta princeps Blanf. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 72: 409-434. - get paper here
  • Eiselt, J. 1969. Zweiter Beitrag zur Taxonomie der Zagroseidechse Lacerta princeps BLANFORD. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien 73: 209-220. - get paper here
  • Frynta,D. et al. 1997. Results of the Czech biological expedition to Iran. Part 1. Notes on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 61: 3-17
  • Ghaffari, S.M. & Parsa, H. 2007. New Chromosome Count on Endemic Subspecies of Laceta [sic] princeps subsp. Princeps (Lacertidae) from Iran. Cytologia 72(2): 205–208 - get paper here
  • Ilgaz, Ç. & Kumlutaş, Y. 2008. The Morphology and Distribution of Timon princeps (Blanford 1874) (Sauria: Lacertidae) in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. North-Western Journal of Zoology 4 (2): 247-262 - get paper here
  • Kamali, Kamran 2020. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Iran. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany ( 574 pp.
  • Kosswig, C. 1955. Zoogoegraphy in the near east. Systematic Zoology 4 (2): 49-73+96 - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E.; Anderson,S.C.; Adler, K.; Minton,S.A. 1992. Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles. SSAR, Oxford, Ohio (Contr. to Herpetol. No. 8), 1-252
  • Mayer, W., and Bischoff, W. 1996. Beiträge zur taxonomischen Revision der Gattung Lacerta (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Teil 1: Zootoca, Omanosaura, Timon und Teira als eigenständige Gattungen. Salamandra 32 (3): 163-170 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1952. Türkiye amfibi ve reptilleri hakkinda. Amphibien und Reptilien aus der Türkei. Rev. Istanbul Üniversitesi fen Fakültesi Mecmuasi, 17:41-75. - get paper here
  • Mulder, J. 1998. Die Zagros-Eidechse Timon princeps (BLANFORD, 1874) im natürlichen Lebensraum . Die Eidechse 8 (3): 75-79 - get paper here
  • Niazi A.D. 1976. The Iraqi Lacerta – its taxonomy, geographical distribution and natural history remarks. Bulletin of the Natural History Research Centr. – Baghdad 7 (1): 16 – 37
  • Rahimi, E., Rastegar Pouyani, N., & Karamiani, R. 2020. The Lizard Fauna of Arsanjan County, Northeast Fars Province. Journal of Animal Research (Iranian Journal of Biology) - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • RYKENA, S. & W. BISCHOFF 1997. Kurzporträt: Timon princeps kurdistanicus (SUCHOV, 1936) - Kurdische Zagros-Eidechse. Die Eidechse 8 (2): 41-43 - get paper here
  • Rykena, S.; Nettmann, H.-K. & Bings, W. 1977. Zur Biologie der Zagros-Eidechse, Lacerta princeps BLANFORD 1874. I. Beobachtungen im Freiland und im Terrarium an Lacerta princeps kurdistanica SUCHOV 1936. Salamandra 13 (3-4): 174-184 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554. - get paper here
  • ŠMÍD, JIŘÍ; JIŘÍ MORAVEC, PETR KODYM, LUKÁŠ KRATOCHVÍL, SEYYED SAEED HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI & DANIEL FRYNTA 2014. Annotated checklist and distribution of the lizards of Iran. Zootaxa 3855 (1): 001–097 - get paper here
  • Trapp, B. 2006. Dünne Luft - eine Exkursion ins Hochland des Irans und die Türkei. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (59): 40-49 - get paper here
  • Wettstein, O. 1960. Drei seltene Echsen aus Südwest-Asien. Zool. Anz. 165: 190-193
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